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Table 5 Khat use among deceased adults in relation to causes of death (N = 3709), Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 2006-2009

From: Association of socioeconomic and behavioral factors with adult mortality: analysis of data from verbal autopsy in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

Cause of death Number Frequent khatuse Occasional khatuse No khatuse **
  n n (%) n (%) n (%)
I. Communicable diseases 1566 93 (6)* 46 (3) 1427 (91)
   HIV/AIDS 707 60 (9)* 29 (4) 618 (87)
   Tuberculosis 460 30 (7)* 13 (3) 417 (91)
   Respiratory infections 102 2 (2) - 100 (98)
   Diarrheal disease 115 4 (4) 3 (3) 108 (94)
   Meningitis 47 1 (2) 1 (2) 45 (96)
II. Non Communicable disease 1915 64 (3)* 37(2) 1814 (95)
  A. Malignant neoplasm 386 7 (2)* 9 (2) 370 (96)
   Stomach cancer 73 2 (3) 1 (1) 70 (96)
   Breast cancer 43 - 1 (2) 42 (98)
   Uterine cancer 47 - 1 (2) 46 (98)
   Liver cancer 37 - - 37 (100)
   Cancer of cervix 19 - - 19 (100)
   Colon and rectal cancer 27 1 (4) - 26 (96)
   Other neoplasm 145 3 (2) 4 (3) 138 (95)
  B. Diabetes mellitus 183 6 (3) 3 (2) 174 (95)
  C. Neuropsychiatry 76 4 (5) 3 (4) 69 (91)
  D. Cardiovascular diseases 885 25 (3)* 13 (2) 847 (96)
   Hypertensive heart disease 426 9 (2)* 5 (1) 412 (97)
   Cerebrovascular disease 404 12 (3) 8 (2) 384 (95)
   Congestive heart failure 239 9 (4) 2 (1) 228 (95)
   Myocardial infarction 84 5 (6) 1 (1) 78 (93)
  E. Respiratory diseases 93 1 (1) 1 (1) 91 (98)
   Asthma 73 1 (1) 1 (1) 71 (97)
  F. Digestive diseases 328 20 (6) 8 (2) 300 (92)
   Chronic liver disease 165 13 (8) 4 (2) 148 (90)
   Peptic ulcer disease 31 - 2 (7) 29 (94)
  G. Genitourinary disease 137 6 (4) 3 (2) 128 (93)
   Chronic renal failure 112 5 (5) 2 (2) 105 (94)
III. Injuries 233 13 (6)* 15 (6) 205 (88)
  A. Unintentional 102 2 (2) 6 (6) 94 (92)
   Road traffic accidents 83 1 (1) 5 (6) 77 (93)
  B. Intentional (Suicide…) 79 8 (10)* 7 (9) 64 (81)
   Poisoning 28 2 (7)* 3 (11) 23 (82)
   Undetermined 254 2 (1)* 4 (2) 248 (98)
  1. Note: * P < 0.03. P value obtained by comparison of frequent khat use, occasional khat use and non khat use by chi- squared trend test.
  2. **No khat use is a reference category.