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Table 1 Clinical characteristics of the study population

From: Prevalence and risk factors for diabetic retinopathy in a high-risk Chinese population

  With DR (n = 31) Without DR (n = 177) p value
Age (years) 69.84 ± 7.90 69.06 ± 8.57 0.636
Gender    0.472
Male 11 (35.5%) 75 (42.4%)  
Female 20 (64.5%) 102 (57.6%)  
Body mass index (kg/m2) 27.31 ± 3.06 26.49 ± 3.14 0.181
Waist circumference (cm) 90.10 ± 7.03 89.66 ± 7.92 0.774
Hip circumference (cm) 100.74 ± 6.21 99.42 ± 6.55 0.296
HbA1c (%) 6.54 ± 1.38 5.59 ± 0.59 0.010
FPG (mmol/L) 6.97 ± 2.34 5.70 ± 0.94 0.005
2hPG (mmol/L) 13.71 ± 5.24 8.95 ± 3.36 <0.001
Systolic blood pressure (mm Hg) 139.23 ± 17.24 139.88 ± 19.58 0.861
Diastolic blood pressure (mm Hg) 80.39 ± 10.42 80.38 ± 10.56 0.997
Hypertension 26(83.9%) 137(77.4%) 0.420
Total cholesterol (mmol/L) 5.62 ± 1.17 5.23 ± 1.47 0.165
Triglycerides (mmol/L) 2.52 ± 2.45 2.23 ± 1.66 0.408
HDL-cholesterol (mmol/L) 1.36 ± 0.32 1.40 ± 0.33 0.545
LDL-cholesterol (mmol/L) 3.57 ± 0.83 3.47 ± 1.00 0.580
Urine albumin (mg/L) 13.9 (11.2-30.3) 11.5 (11.2-15.8) 0.022
Microalbuminuria 10(32.3%) 16(9.0%) <0.001
Family history of diabetes mellitus 2(6.5%) 9(5.1%) 0.670
History of impaired glucose regulation 8(25.8%) 9(5.1%) 0.001
History of antihypertensive drug treatment 18(58.1%) 98(55.4%) 0.780
Physical activity (≥ 4 hours per week) 17(54.8%) 100(56.5%) 0.864
Daily consumption of fruits or vegetables 25(80.6%) 129(72.9%) 0.363
The FINDRISC score 12.06 ± 2.56 11.08 ± 2.14 0.023
  1. DR diabetic retinopathy, FINDRISC Finnish diabetes risk score.