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Table 1 Prevalence and determinants of off-label medicine use, KiGGS 2003-2006

From: Off-label medicine use in children and adolescents: results of a population-based study in Germany

  Children with drug use (n = 8,899) Children with off-label medicine use of ≥ 1 preparation (n = 3,610) Children with excl. in-label medicine use (n = 4.334) Children with excl. not-attributable medicine use (n = 955) Children with off-label vs. excl. in-label medicine use (n = 7,808)  
n % 95% CI % 95% CI % 95% CI % 95% CI OR 95% CI p-value
Total 8,899 50.8 (49.5-52.2) 40.2 (38.8-41.5) 48.7 (47.3-50.2) 11.1 (10.3-12.0)    
Sex             .015
   Boys 4,362 48.7 (47.2-50.3) 41.4 (39.7-43.1) 46.2 (44.5-47.9) 12.4 (11.3-13.6) 1.13 (1.03-1.25)  
   Girls 4,537 53.1 (51.5-54.7) 38.9 (37.1-38.8) 51.2 (49.3-53.2) 9.8 (8.9-10.9) 1(Referenz)  
Age group             < .001
   0 - 2 years 2,089 74.9 (72.9-76.9) 42.4 (39.8-45.1) 53.1 (50.3-55.9) 4.5 (3.5-5.8) 1.45 (1.24-1.69)  
   3 - 6 years 1,939 51.1 (48.8-53.3) 48.7 (46.1-51.4) 39.7 (37.2-42.2) 11.6 (10.0-13.4) 2.08 (1.79-2.41)  
   7 - 10 years 1,718 42.6 (40.4-44.8) 41.3 (38.9-43.8) 45.7 (43.3-48.1) 13.0 (11.4-14.8) 1.52 1.31-1.78)  
   11 - 13 years 1,289 42.4 (40.1-44.7) 36.9 (34.0-40.0) 46.5 (43.1-49.8) 16.6 (14.3-19.2) 1.36 (1.15-1.60)  
   14 - 17 years 1,864 50.7 (49.5-52.2) 32.5 (30.2-34.8) 56.1 (53.6-58.8) 11.4 (9.9-13.1) 1(Referenz)  
Region             .355
   East 2,881 51.7 (49.2-54.2) 40.3 (38.3-42.4) 50.1 (47.9-52.2) 9.6 (8.7-10.7) 1.06 (0.93-1-19)  
   West 6,018 50.7 (49.2-52.2) 40.1 (38.5-41.7) 48.5 (46.8-50.2) 11.4 (10.5-12.4) 1(Referenz)  
Urbanity             .022
   Rural area 1,985 50.5 (47.8-53.1) 36.5 (33.4-39.8) 54.5 (51.0-58.0) 8.9 (7.1-11.1) 0.83 (0.69-1.00)  
   Small city 2,314 50.9 (48.3-53.5) 42.0 (39.0-45.0) 47.3 (44.6-49.6) 10.8 (9.3-12.4) 1.10 (0.92-1.30)  
   Medium-sized city 2,561 50.7 (48.2-53.3) 41.6 (39.4-43.8) 47.3 (45.2-49.4) 11.1 (10.0-12.4) 1.07 (0.91-1.24)  
   Large city 2,039 51.2 (48.4-53.9) 39.1 (36.8-41.5) 47.9 (45.1-50.8) 12.9 (11.2-14.9) 1(Referenz)  
Migrant background             .954
   Yes 1,071 41.4 (38.8-44.2) 35.8 (32.6-39.1) 44.1 (40.5-47.8) 20.1 (17.5-22.9) 0.99 (0.82-1.21)  
   No 7,788 52.8 (51.5-54.1) 40.9 (39.4-42.3) 49.5 (48.0-51.1) 9.6 (8.8-10.4) 1(Referenz)  
   Missing 40            
Social status             .157
   Low 2,249 47.1 (45.0-49.2) 39.1 (36.6-41.7) 47.0 (44.4-49.7) 13.9 (12.1-15.8) 0.91 (0.78-1.07)  
   Middle 4,083 51.2 (49.7-52.7) 39.9 (37.9-41.9) 50.4 (48.3-52.5) 9.7 (8.6-10.8) 0.90 (0.80-1.00)  
   High 2,403 55.1 (53.0-57.3) 42.5 (40.4-44.7) 47.6 (45.4-49.8) 9.9 (8.5-11.4) 1(Referenz)  
   Missing 164            
Parents’ rated subjective health status             < .001
   Excellent 3,261 47.2 (45.4-48.9) 38.2 (36.1-40.3) 51.7 (49.6-53.8) 10.1 (9.1-11.2) 0.71 (0.58-0.88)  
   Good 4,840 52.1 (50.6-62.9) 41.2 (39.4-42.9) 47.1 (45.3-49.0) 11.7 (10.5-13.0) 0.89 (0.73-1.07)  
   Moderate/Bad/Very Bad 798 60.0 (49.5-52.2) 41.7 (37.9-45.6) 46.7 (42.8-50.7) 11.6 (9.3-14.3) 1(Referenz)  
  1. n unweighted, % weighted.