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Table 3 Adjusted odds ratios for the associations of different histories of violence (uninvolved, victims, perpetrators, and perpetrating victims) with the mental health problems investigated (N = 7697)

From: Prevalence and gender patterns of mental health problems in German youth with experience of violence: the KiGGS study

  Uninvolved youth Victims Perpetrators Perpetrating victims
   AOR (95% CI) p AOR (95% CI) p AOR (95% CI) p
Internalizing        
  Emotional problems Ref. 1.63 (1.09-2.44) .0169 1.60 (1.23-2.10) .0006 2.57 (1.83-3.60) <.0001
  Disordered eating behaviors Ref. 1.47 (1.09-1.98) .0121 1.33 (1.08-1.62) .0063 1.90 (1.45-2.49) <.0001
  Somatic pain Ref. 1.37 (0.68-2.75) .3792 0.99 (0.63-1.55) .9490 1.40 (0.72-2.75) .3226
  Gender*history of violence Ref. 0.79 (0.22-2.81) .7111 2.22 (1.17-4.22) .0151 2.01 (0.86-4.72) .1092
  Sleeping problems Ref. 2.91 (1.88-4.50) <.0001 1.72 (1.27-2.32) .0004 2.89 (1.91-4.37) <.0001
Externalizing        
  Conduct problems Ref. 3.80 (1.93-7.46) .0001 4.91 (3.12-7.73) <.0001 5.06 (2.43-10.51) <.0001
  Gender*history of violence Ref. 0.47 (0.18-1.23) .1245 0.53 (0.31-0.90) .0194 0.68 (0.30-1.55) .3578
  ADHD Ref. 1.56 (0.94-2.59) .0873 1.82 (1.37-2.41) <.0001 1.66 (1.06-2.60) .0268
  Frequent drinking Ref. 1.49 (0.94-2.37) .0868 2.21 (1.61-3.04) <.0001 2.92 (1.74-4.89) <.0001
  Illicit drug use Ref. 1.02 (0.22-4.77) .9802 4.36 (2.36-8.07) <.0001 8.92 (4.32- 18.43) <.0001
  Gender*history of violence Ref. 1.45 (0.24-8.77) .6838 0.66 (0.32-1.34) .2518 0.33 (0.12-0.87) .0255
  1. Note: AOR Adjusted odds ratio. Adjustment made for age, socioeconomic status (low/middle/high), and family structure (living with single parent/step-parent/birth parents/other).
  2. Only significant interaction terms are presented. Gender: Boys vs. girls (Ref.). History of violence: Perpetrating victims, perpetrators and victims vs. uninvolved youth (Ref.)