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Table 4 Multilevel analyses of the effectiveness of the CHANGE! intervention between baseline and follow-up

From: Promoting healthy weight in primary school children through physical activity and nutrition education: a pragmatic evaluation of the CHANGE! randomised intervention study

  Crude modela Adjusted modelb
Outcome measure β or OR (95% CI) ICC P β or OR (95% CI) ICC P
Body size:       
Waist circumference (cm) −0.95 c (0.98, -0.92) 0.10 0.06 −0.64c (−1.50, 0.22) 0.06 0.15
BMI (kg/m2) −0.55c (−1.16, 0.06) 0.22 0.76 −0.47c (−1.03, 0.09) 0.18 0.09
BMI z-score −0.27 c (−0.53, -0.01) 0.21 0.04 −0.24 c (−0.48, -0.003) 0.17 0.04
Physical activity:       
LPA (min day) −2.40c (−18.05, 13.25) 0.19 0.76 25.97 (8.04, 43.89) 0.04 0.01
MPA (min/day) −3.92c (−9.94, 2.10) 0.07 0.20 −3.27c (−13.02, 6.48) 0.00 0.52
VPA (min/day) −1.12c (−3.16, 0.92) 0.00 0.28 1.73c (−3.25, 6.71) 0.00 0.50
Sedentary time (min/day) −0.02c (−18.79, 18.76) 0.00 0.99 −8.44c (−53.23, 36.35) 0.00 0.97
Food:       
Breakfast 0.85d (0.03, 1.67) - 0.70 1.88d (0.76, 2.99) - 0.27
Fruit 1.35d (0.69, 2.01) - 0.37 0.99d (0.24, 1.74) - 0.99
Vegetables 1.07d (0.39, 1.75) - 0.62 1.06d (3.45, 1.78) - 0.87
  1. Notes. OR odds ratio, CI confidence interval, ICC intra-class correlation. Values reflect the intervention effects (i.e., between-group differences) between baseline and follow-up. Values in bold denote beta (95% CI) and significance values of outcomes with significant intervention effects (P<0.05).
  2. aAdjusted for group and baseline value of the outcome measure.
  3. bAdditionally adjusted for, sex, SES group, weight status group (physical activity outcome measures were also adjusted for playground area, 20 m SRT performance, average weekly temperature and rainfall at baseline; food outcome measures were also adjusted for MVPA at baseline).
  4. cβ value.
  5. dOdds ratio.