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Table 3 Association between socio-demographic and clinical characteristics and a positive cervical screening test among HIV-infected women

From: Cervical cancer risk factors among HIV-infected Nigerian women

  Univariate Multivariate
  RR (95%CI) p-value RR (95%CI) p-value
Socio-demographic characteristics     
Age category (years)   <0.0001*   0.0005*
   <30 (ref) 1.0   1.0  
   30–34 0.8 (0.5–1.1)   (0.6–1.3)  
   35–39 0.6 (0.4–0.9)   (0.5–1.1)  
   ≥40 0.3 (0.2–0.5)   0.4 (0.2–0.7)  
Age at first sexual intercourse (years)   0.06*   0.05*
   <15 (ref) 1.0   1.0  
   15–19 0.9 (0.5–1.6)   0.8 (0.5–1.3)  
   20–24 0.7 (0.4–1.3)   0.6 (0.4–1.1)  
   ≥25 0.6 (0.2–1.3)   0.5 (0.2–1.2)  
Number of sexual partners   0.2*   
   ≤2 (ref) 1.0    
   3–4 1.2 (0.5–2.8)    
   ≥5 2.1 (0.7–6.1)    
Total number of pregnancies   0.03*   0.1*
   0–2 (ref) 1.0   1.0  
   3–4 0.8 (0.5–1.1)   0.7 (0.5–1.1)  
   5–6 0.6 (0.4–1.0)   0.6 (0.4–1.1)  
   ≥7 0.7 (0.4–1.1)   0.7 (0.4–1.3)  
Total number of abortions   0.06*   0.007*
   0–2 (ref) 1.0   1.0  
   3–4 1.5 (1.0–2.1)   1.7 (1.1–2.5)  
   ≥5 1.4 (0.8–2.4)   1.8 (1.0–3.6)  
Religion   0.04   0.09
   Islam (ref) 1.0   1.0  
   Christian 1.7 (1.0–2.8)   1.5 (0.9–2.5)  
Education   0.5   
   None (ref) 1.0    
   Quaranic 0.8 (0.1–6.3)    
   Primary (0.5–2.7)    
   Secondary (0.7–3.4)    
   Tertiary 1.3 (0.6–2.8)    
Marital Status   0.08   1.0
   Single (ref) 1.0   1.0  
   Married 0.5 (0.4–0.8)   (0.6–1.2)  
   Widowed 0.5 (0.3–0.8)   (0.6–1.6)  
   Divorced 0.7 (0.4–1.3)   (0.6–1.9)  
   Cohabiting 0.6 (0.1–4.1)   0.6 (0.1–4.1)  
Occupation   0.6   
   Employed (ref) 1.0    
   Unemployed (1.4–4.2)    
   Student (0.4–5.5)    
   Other 1.0 (0.5–2.1)    
   N/A 1.4 (0.4–5.3)    
Contraceptive use 1.0 (0.7–1.4) 1.0   
Hormonal contraceptives 0.6 (0.1–3.8) 0.5   
Intrauterine devices 1.5 (0.5–4.5) 0.5   
Barrier contraceptives 1.2 (0.8–1.7) 0.4   
Clinical characteristics     
BMI (kg/m2)   0.8   
   <18.5 (ref) 1.0    
   18.5–24.9 (0.7–1.5)    
   25–29.9 0.6 (0.2–2.5)    
   ≥30 1.0 (0.5–1.8)    
Vaginal wall abnormality   0.0006   0.0007
   None (ref) 1.0   1.0  
   Other 2.0 (1.3–2.9)   1.9 (1.3–2.8)  
Last CD4 count (per mm3)   <0.0001*   <0.0001*
   <300 (ref) 1.0   1.0  
   300–<450 0.5 (0.3–0.7)   (0.3–0.7)  
   450–<650 0.5 (0.3–0.7)   0.5 (0.3–0.8)  
   ≥650 0.3 (0.2–0.5)   0.3 (0.2–0.6)  
WHO stage   1.0   
   Stage 1 (ref) 1.0    
   Stage 2 (0.2–1.4)    
   Stage 3 1.3 (0.6–2.7)    
   Stage 4 1.6 (0.2–10.2)    
ART Regimen currently on   0.6   
   TDF-containing ART 1.4(1.0–2.0)    
   ZDV-containing ART (1.0–2.2)    
   d4T-containing ART 0.9 (0.4–2.1)    
  1. *p-value for trend using median value of each category.