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Table 2 Elders’ response in CES-D# scale and scores

From: The protective effect of taking care of grandchildren on elders’ mental health? Associations between changing patterns of intergenerational exchanges and the reduction of elders’ loneliness and depression between 1993 and 2007 in Taiwan

    Year   
  Total 1993 1999 2007   
  n = 5070 n = 914 n = 1792 n = 2292   
Items n % n % n % n % chi-sq p-value
In a bad mood           
  none 3317 65.42 600 65.65 1159 64.68 1558 67.98 32.66 <0.0001
  a little 524 10.34 68 7.44 231 12.89 225 9.82   
  sometimes 755 14.89 150 16.41 256 14.29 349 15.23   
  often or always 402 7.93 96 10.50 146 8.15 160 6.98   
Lonely           
  none 3905 77.02 665 72.76 1336 74.55 1904 83.07 106.87 <0.0001
  a little 343 6.77 44 4.81 176 9.82 123 5.37   
  sometimes 452 8.92 129 14.11 154 8.59 169 7.37   
  often or always 298 5.88 76 8.32 126 7.03 96 4.19   
Unfriendly           
  none 4508 88.92 805 88.07 1563 87.22 2140 93.37 52.03 <0.0001
  a little 249 4.91 48 5.25 121 6.75 80 3.49   
  sometimes 158 3.12 40 4.38 69 3.85 49 2.14   
  often or always 83 1.64 21 2.30 39 2.18 23 1.00   
Felt sad           
  none 3998 78.86 694 75.93 1379 76.95 1925 83.99 57.36 <0.0001
  a little 379 7.48 62 6.78 167 9.32 150 6.54   
  sometimes 402 7.93 103 11.27 152 8.48 147 6.41   
  often or always 219 4.32 55 6.02 94 5.25 70 3.05   
Have no energy for things           
  none 3548 69.98 613 67.07 1211 67.58 1724 75.22 51.75 <0.0001
  a little 471 9.29 72 7.88 199 11.10 200 8.73   
  sometimes 597 11.78 142 15.54 226 12.61 229 9.99   
  often or always 382 7.53 87 9.52 156 8.71 139 6.06   
Total CES-D scores           
  0 ~ 5 4243 83.69 733 80.20 1483 82.76 2027 88.44 50.53 <0.0001
  6 ~ 10 561 11.07 127 13.89 223 12.44 211 9.21   
  11 ~ 15 194 3.83 54 5.91 86 4.80 54 2.36   
  1. #CES-D referred to Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale.