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Table 4 Results of the three-level hierarchical linear regression model comparing self-reported HRQoL scores in adolescents between patients and objective/subjective weight groups from the general population

From: Health-related quality of life in overweight German children and adolescents: do treatment-seeking youth have lower quality of life levels? Comparison of a clinical sample with the general population using a multilevel model approach

FIXED EFFECTS Coefficient Robust s.e. t-ratio Effect size d FIXED EFFECTS Coefficient Robust s.e. t-ratio Effect size d
Physical well-being: Family:
Intercept 71.729 2.364 30.345***   Intercept 78.492 1.988 39.490***  
Sex (male) -6.502 3.859 -1.685 -0.39 Sex (male) 0.701 0.523 1.341 0.05
Immigrant -1.584 0.148 -10.690*** -0.10 Immigrant 0.261 0.719 0.363 0.02
Age† -0.002 0.060 -0.032 0.00§ Age† -0.908 0.151 -6.009*** -0.17§
SES score† -0.390 0.672 -0.581 -0.15$ SES score† 0.065 0.058 1.114 0.02$
Group effects (ref.: Obeldicks light) Multivariate hypothesis χ2 with robust s.e.: χ2 (df=5) =72.265*** Group effects (ref.: Obeldicks light) Multivariate hypothesis χ2 with robust s.e.: χ2 (df=5) =51.845***
Normal/proper 0.045 2.423 0.019 0.00 0.81 Normal/proper 5.306 2.003 2.649** 0.35
Normal/too fat -5.372 2.455 -2.188* -0.35 0.53 Normal/too fat 1.176 2.030 0.579 0.08
Overweight/proper -0.140 3.850 -0.036 -0.01 0.95 Overweight/proper 6.427 2.763 2.326* 0.42
Overweight/too fat -7.303 2.686 -2.719** -0.48 0.50 Overweight/too fat 2.118 2.099 1.009 0.14
Obese/too fat -5.603 2.612 -2.145* -0.37 0.42 Obese/too fat 4.133 2.175 1.900 0.27
Interaction sex(male) × group Multivariate hypothesis χ2 with robust s.e.: χ2 (df=5) =14.804** Friends:
× normal/proper 12.407 3.908 3.175**    Intercept 71.686 1.913 37.466***  
× normal/too fat 13.488 3.943 3.421***    Sex (male) 1.976 0.499 3.960*** 0.14
× overweight/proper 14.735 5.458 2.700**    Immigrant -0.680 0.691 -0.985 -0.05
× overweight/too fat 14.959 4.209 3.554***    Age† -1.196 0.142 -8.393*** -0.25§
× obese/too fat 12.095 4.120 2.936**    SES score† -0.206 0.062 -3.335*** -0.08§
Emotional well-being: Group effects (ref.: Obeldicks light) Multivariate hypothesis χ2 with robust s.e.: χ2 (df=5) =49.050***
Intercept 80.064 1.728 46.335***    Normal/proper 7.263 1.944 3.735*** 0.50
Sex(male) 1.257 0.434 2.898** 0.10   Normal/too fat 5.197 1.964 2.646** 0.36
Immigrant -0.539 0.621 -0.868 -0.04   Overweight/proper 6.402 2.600 2.463* 0.44
Age† -0.739 0.125 -5.914*** -0.18§   Overweight/too fat 3.669 2.075 1.768 0.25
SES score† 0.059 0.053 1.114 0.03$   Obese/too fat 2.309 2.228 1.036 0.16
Group effects (ref.: Obeldicks light) Multivariate hypothesis χ2 with robust s.e.: χ2 (df=5) =46.964*** School:
Normal/proper 2.768 1.750 1.582 0.22   Intercept 66.218 2.155 30.729***  
Normal/too fat -0.050 1.775 -0.028 0.00   Sex (male) -0.212 0.512 -0.414 -0.01
Overweight/proper 5.221 2.261 2.309* 0.42   Immigrant -5.532 0.834 -6.630*** -0.35
Overweight/too fat -0.093 1.875 -0.050 -0.01   Age† -2.003 0.165 -12.120*** -0.38§
Obese/too fat 0.390 1.925 0.202 0.03   SES score† 0.429 0.070 6.116*** 0.16$
Self-esteem: Group effects (ref.: Obeldicks light) Multivariate hypothesis χ2 with robust s.e.: χ2 (df=5) =95.841***
Intercept 60.474 2.143 28.221***    Normal/proper 4.532 2.184 2.075* 0.28
Sex(male) 3.341 0.585 5.716*** 0.19   Normal/too fat -0.843 2.212 -0.381 -0.05
Immigrant 0.910 0.828 1.099 0.05   Overweight/proper 8.666 3.719 2.330* 0.54
Age† 1.022 0.173 5.907*** 0.17§   Overweight/too fat -0.229 2.323 -0.099 -0.01
SES score† -0.014 0.074 -0.192 0.00$   Obese/too fat -0.303 2.435 -0.124 -0.02
Group effects (ref.: Obeldicks light) Multivariate hypothesis χ2 with robust s.e.: χ2 (df=5) =83.703***  
Normal/proper -1.405 2.181 -0.644 -0.08  
Normal/too fat -7.093 2.204 -3.219** -0.40  
Overweight/proper 1.572 3.706 0.424 0.09  
Overweight/too fat -7.038 2.363 -2.979** -0.39  
Obese/too fat -8.235 2.428 -3.391*** -0.46  
RANDOM EFFECTS Standard Deviation Variance component Chi-square RANDOM EFFECTS Standard Deviation Variance component Chi-square
Level 2: Level 3:
Physical well-being 15.279 233.445 967288.672***    Physical well-being 1.630 2.657 291.914**
Emotional well-being 12.367 152.952 638869.901***    Emotional well-being 1.010 1.020* 276.583*
Self-esteem 17.884 319.822 1374249.579***    Self Esteem 0 (fixed) ns
Family 15.142 229.276 999529.880***    Family 0 (fixed) ns
Friends 14.610 213.444 929884.982***    Friends 0 (fixed)  
School 15.985 255.526 1064648.929***    School 1.993 3.972 317.574***
  1. Note: * p≤ 0.05, ** p≤ 0.01, *** p≤ 0.001, ns: not significant.
  2. †Grand-mean centered.
  3. ‡ Effect size (d) computed as the model-estimated mean difference divided by the level 2-standard deviation of the subscale score.
  4. § Effect size for the mean difference of a 3-year increase in age.
  5. $ Effect size for the mean difference of a 6-point increase in SES score (on a scale ranging from 3 to 21; corresponding to the difference between low and medium or medium and high SES, respectively).
  6. s.e. = Standard error.
  7. ref. = Reference group.
  8. ♀: girls, ♂: boys.
  9. N=26,882 measurements nested in N=4519 individuals and N=232 sample points.
  10. Model statistics: deviance = 218,590.150, number of estimated parameters = 92.