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Table 3 Results of the three-level hierarchical linear regression model comparing parent proxy-reported HRQoL scores between patients and objective/subjective weight groups from the general population

From: Health-related quality of life in overweight German children and adolescents: do treatment-seeking youth have lower quality of life levels? Comparison of a clinical sample with the general population using a multilevel model approach

FIXED EFFECTS Coefficient Robust s.e. t-ratio Effect size d FIXED EFFECTS Coefficient Robust s.e. t-ratio Effect size d
Physical well-being: Family:
Intercept 71.494 1.550 46.121***   Intercept 74.971 1.257 59.624***  
Sex (male) 4.156 0.420 9.895*** 0.26 Sex (male) -0.209 0.413 -0.506 -0.01
Proxy not mother 2.348 0.655 3.586*** 0.15 Proxy not mother 1.523 0.602 2.529* 0.11
Immigrant -0.629 0.705 -0.893 -0.04 Immigrant 3.100 0.652 4.757*** 0.22
Age† -1.085 0.089 -12.206*** -0.20§ Age† -0.588 0.075 -7.834*** -0.13§
SES score† 0.250 0.058 4.278*** 0.09$ SES score† 0.111 0.049 2.276* 0.05$
Group effects (ref.: Obeldicks light) Multivariate hypothesis χ2 with robust s.e.: χ2 (df=5) =114.521*** Group effects (ref.: Obeldicks light) Multivariate hypothesis χ2 with robust s.e.: χ2 (df=5) =28.512***
Normal/proper 4.961 1.569 3.162** 0.31 Normal/proper 3.203 1.269 2.525* 0.23
Normal/too fat 0.111 1.755 0.063 0.01 Normal/too fat -0.118 1.418 -0.083 0.01
Overweight/proper 5.925 2.088 2.837** 0.37 Overweight/proper 2.644 2.026 1.305 0.19
Overweight/too fat 0.553 1.684 0.328 0.03 Overweight/too fat 1.376 1.407 0.978 0.10
Obese/too fat -1.454 1.741 -0.835 -0.09 Obese/too fat 2.694 1.465 1.838 0.19
Emotional well-being: Friends:
Intercept 76.469 1.260 60.679***   Intercept 70.093 1.198 58.488***  
Sex (male) 0.534 0.357 1.496 0.04 Sex (male) 1.349 0.357 3.778*** 0.10
Proxy not mother 0.489 0.478 1.023 0.04 Proxy not mother 1.129 0.526 2.145* 0.09
Immigrant 0.222 0.574 0.387 0.02 Immigrant 0.631 0.665 0.948 0.05
Age† 0.490 -0.065 -7.500*** 0.12§ Age† -0.216 0.072 -3.022** -0.05§
SES score† 0.131 0.040 3.291*** 0.06$ SES score† -0.130 0.045 -2.902** -0.06$
Group effects (ref.: Obeldicks light) Multivariate hypothesis χ2 with robust s.e.: χ2 (df=5) =60.930*** Group effects (ref.: Obeldicks light) Multivariate hypothesis χ2 with robust s.e.: χ2 (df=5) =101.758***
Normal/proper 4.853 1.269 3.824*** 0.39 Normal/proper 8.104 1.214 6.674*** 0.61
Normal/too fat 1.549 1.392 1.113 0.12 Normal/too fat 5.045 1.327 3.800*** 0.38
Overweight/proper 6.377 1.719 3.710*** 0.51 Overweight/proper 8.580 1.843 4.655*** 0.65
Overweight/too fat 1.957 1.403 1.395 0.16 Overweight/too fat 4.505 1.379 3.266*** 0.34
Obese/too fat 2.224 1.427 1.558 0.18 Obese/too fat 3.650 1.487 2.454* 0.28
Self-esteem: School:
Intercept 62.218 1.395 44.609***   Intercept 74.993 1.354 55.384***  
Sex (male) -0.195 0.432 -0.452 0.01 Sex (male) -2.258 0.471 -4.796*** -0.16
Proxy not mother 1.265 0.934 1.354 0.09 Proxy not mother -1.927 0.773 -2.492* -0.13
Immigrant -0.412 0.719 -0.573 0.03 Immigrant -6.772 0.737 -9.185*** -0.47
Age† -0.520 0.073 -7.149*** -0.11§ Age† -1.906 0.083 -22.888*** -0.39§
SES score† 0.160 0.048 3.335*** 0.07$ SES score† 0.448 0.045 9.859*** 0.18$
Interaction child gender by proxy-rater 2.516 1.066 2.360* 0.18 Interaction child gender by proxy-rater 3.293 0.968 3.402*** 0.23
Group effects (ref.: Obeldicks light) Multivariate hypothesis χ2 with robust s.e.: χ2 (df=5) =75.984*** Group effects (ref.: Obeldicks light) Multivariate hypothesis χ2 with robust s.e.: χ2 (df=5) =18.589**
Normal/proper 7.317 1.400 5.225*** 0.51 Normal/proper 3.425 1.365 2.510* 0.24
Normal/too fat 3.341 1.512 2.210* 0.23 Normal/too fat 1.201 1.543 0.778 0.08
Overweight/proper 9.319 1.832 5.087*** 0.65 Overweight/proper 2.960 1.834 1.614 0.20
Overweight/too fat 4.390 1.559 2.816** 0.31 Overweight/too fat 2.725 1.514 1.800 0.19
Obese/too fat 5.203 1.552 3.353*** 0.36 Obese/too fat 1.270 1.523 0.834 0.09
RANDOM EFFECTS Standard Deviation Variance component Chi-square RANDOM EFFECTS Standard Deviation Variance component Chi-square
Level 2: Level 3:
Physical well-being 16.059 257.895 1459059.004***   Physical well-being 2.017 4.068 413.866***  
Emotional well-being 12.538 157.210 884875.385*** Emotional well-being 1.136 1.291 381.487***
Self-esteem 14.322 205.109 1124020.870*** Self-esteem 1.313 1.723 374.844***
Family 14.074 198.066 1119831.448*** Family 1.537 2.363 366.903**
Friends 13.216 174.672 988605.745*** Friends 1.108 1.227 340.837*
School 14.354 206.030 1185310.926***   School 1.342 1.800 351.198*  
  1. Note: * p≤ 0.05, ** p≤ 0.01, *** p≤ 0.001.
  2. †Grand-mean centered.
  3. ‡ Effect size (d) computed as the model-estimated mean difference divided by the level 2-standard deviation of the subscale score.
  4. § Effect size for the mean difference of a 3-year increase in age.
  5. $ Effect size for the mean difference of a 6-point increase in SES score (on a scale ranging from 3 to 21; corresponding to the difference between low and medium or medium and high SES, respectively).
  6. s.e. = Standard error.
  7. ref. = Reference group.
  8. N=38,032 measurements nested in N=6436 individuals and N=304 sample points.
  9. Model statistics: Deviance = 301,365.943; number of estimated parameters = 110.