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Table 1 Summary of primary studies with HIV/HCV biomarkers

From: High coverage needle/syringe programs for people who inject drugs in low and middle income countries: a systematic review

Study Information Coverage Pre-Implementation and Expansion Post-Implementation and Expansion
Investigator Location Study Design Syringes per PWID/Year1 Year (n) HIV prev. HCV prev. Estimated HIVinc.2 HCV inc. Year (n) HIV prev.3 HCV prev.3 Estimated HIVinc.2 HCV inc.
Gray 1998 [25] Chiang Rai, Thailand Time Series Cross Sectional 150-160 1993 46 33%     1996 132 18% (15%)    
Caiaffa 2003 [26] Porto Alegre, Brazil Pre-Post Study Comparison 6-20 1998 137 49%     2001 255 64.3% (+16%)    
Wu 2007 [27] Dagou, China Pre-Post Study Comparison 290-300 2002 235 40% 99%    2003 226 34% (6%) 89% (10%)   
Luzhai, China Pre-Post Study Comparison 140-150 2002 194 56% 89%    2003 219 53% (3%) 85% (4%)   
Azim 2008 [28] Dhaka, Bangladesh Time Series Cross Sectional 285-344 1990 418 2% 67%    2006 1092 7% (+5%) 57% (10%)   
Azim 2009 [29] Dhaka, Bangladesh Time Series Cross Sectional 285-344 1999 418     1.2/100 PY 2007 1045     1.3/100 PY
Uuskula 2011 [30] Tallinn, Estonia Time Series Cross Sectional 23-78 2005 350 54%   20.9/100 PY   2009 327 50% (4%)   9/100 PY  
Hammett 2012 [31] Ning Ming, China Time Series Cross Sectional 20-30 2002 290 17%   12/100 PY   2008 187 11% (6%)   11/100 PY  
  Lang Son, Vietnam Time Series Cross Sectional 20-30 2002 342 46%   22/100 PY   2009 185 23% (23%)   3/100 PY  
  1. 1. Syringes per PWID/Year are given as a range based on the first and last date of data collection in each primary study location.
  2. 2. Among new PWID (persons who had begun injecting in the previous 3 years, assumed to be HIV negative when they began injecting).
  3. 3. Post Implementation columns include follow-up biomarker information in addition to the difference from baseline to follow-up.