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Table 1 Summary table of open defecation data for 48 sub-Saharan African countries and national level indices used in the analysis

From: Exploring changes in open defecation prevalence in sub-Saharan Africa based on national level indices

  Sub-Saharan Countries OD prevalence National level indices
   2005-2010 Change (%) 2005 (%)a 2010 (%)a Estimated rates for 2015 (%)a National sanitation policyb Budget linec Budget allocated to sanitationd 2005 per capita GDP (US$)e 2005-2010 GDP growth (%) Total sanitation approachesf 2005-2010 annual aid disbursement per capita (US$)g
Group A Ethiopia −22 61 39 18 166 116 0.3
Angola −21 32 12 0 1,858 140 N/D 0.2
Sao Tome and Principe −10 61 51 41 N/D N/D N/D 746 60 N/D 2.2
Group B Mozambique −9 48 39 30 317 29 0.4
Zambia −8 21 14 6 626 100 1.0
Benin −7 63 56 49 562 33 3.6
Mali −5 17 12 7 403 49 1.1
Guinea −5 24 19 14 325 39 0.5
Guinea-Bissau −5 34 29 24 419 38 0.3
Liberia −5 51 45 40 167 48 0.8
Burkina Faso −5 64 58 53 382 40 1.3
Uganda −4 12 8 4 325 57 N/D 0.6
Swaziland −4 19 16 12 2,540 38 N/D 0.5
Lesotho −4 41 38 34 N/D N/D N/D 662 52 N/D 1.2
Togo −4 53 49 46 391 34 0.3
Chad −4 67 63 59 542 25 0.7
Malawi −3 13 10 7 215 58 0.2
Botswana −3 20 17 15 N/D N/D N/D 5,468 35 N/D 0.0
Ghana −3 20 18 16 495 168 0.7
Mauritania −3 51 48 45 717 46 0.8
Senegal −2 21 20 18 799 29 0.9
Cote d'Ivoire −2 32 30 28 908 27 0.1
Congo, Dem. Rep. −1 11 11 10 124 60 N/D 0.1
Sudan −1 43 42 42 713 100 N/D 0.3
Namibia −1 55 54 53 N/D N/D N/D 3,491 53 N/D 1.4
Group C Central African Republic 0 23 23 23 336 36 0.0
Kenya 1 14 14 15 526 51 0.6
Nigeria 1 22 23 24 803 59 0.1
Madagascar 1 41 43 44 282 49 0.1
Niger 1 80 81 81 262 37 1.0
Zimbabwe 2 27 29 31 458 30 N/D 0.4
Tanzania 3 11 14 18 373 40 N/D 0.6
Sierra Leone 5 25 30 35 240 35 0.7
Cape Verde 10 26 36 45 N/D N/D 2,055 62 4.4
Group D Gambia −3 3 0 0 307 52 1.6
South Africa −3 9 6 3 N/D N/D N/D 5,234 39 N/D 0.1
Burundi −1 1 0 0 N/D N/D N/D 110 75 N/D 0.7
Gabon −1 2 1 0 N/D N/D N/D 6,322 38 N/D 0.0
Congo 0 9 8 8 1,723 72 0.0
Mauritius 0 0 0 0 N/D N/D N/D 5,054 50 N/D 0.0
Rwanda 0 3 3 3 281 89 0.4
Comoros 1 1 2 2 602 22 N/D 0.5
Cameroon 2 7 9 10 N/D N/D N/D 945 21 0.1
Somalia 12 56 68 80 N/D N/D N/D 277 −58 N/D 0.1
Djibouti N/D N/D N/D N/D 877 46 N/D 0.1
Equatorial Guinea N/D N/D N/D N/D 13,521 48 N/D 0.2
Eritrea N/D N/D N/D N/D N/D N/D N/D 245 64 N/D 0.4
Seychelles N/D N/D N/D N/D N/D N/D N/D 10,661 1 N/D 0.0
  1. Group A: Countries with large reductions (greater than 10% reduction) in open defecation; Group B: Countries with mid-level reduction (between 1-9% reduction) in open defecation; Group C: Countries with no reduction or an increase in open defecation (0% to 10% increase); and Group D: Countries excluded from study based on selection criteria (see Methods section).
  2. a OD prevalence for 2005, 2010 and 2015 were calculated by creating a line equation for each country based on the available and eligible data points between 2000 and 2010 obtained from national surveys that met standards of quality set by Joint Monitoring Programme [14].
  3. b The country has a sanitation policy that is prepared by government and endorsed by parliament; the country has a national sanitation policy that is prepared by government but not yet endorsed by parliament; or the country does not have a sanitation policy [17].
  4. c The country has public sector budget allocations and it is used for the sector; the country has budget allocations for sanitation but they are not used for the sector; the country has no public budgetary allocation for sanitation [17].
  5. d The public sector budgetary allocation to sanitation activities is at least 0.5% of the GDP; the public sector budgetary allocation to sanitation activities is between 0.1% to 0.5% of the GDP; the public sector budget allocation to sanitation activities is less than 0.1% of the GDP [17].
  6. e Data on each country’s per capita GDP (in US$ dollars) were obtained from the World Bank database for 2005 and 2010 [18].
  7. f Total sanitation approaches are explicitly part of the national policy; total sanitation approaches are being implemented but not part of official policy; a national policy/strategy that is under development, so it is unclear whether total sanitation approaches will be part of official policy (J. Bevan, personal communication, June 1, 2012).
  8. g Per capita aid disbursement (in US$) for basic drinking water and basic sanitation was calculated for each country by dividing the average annual aid disbursement for basic drinking water and basic sanitation by the average annual population for the five year study period [19].