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Table 2 Methods adopted in the development of the scales included in the review

From: Urbanisation, urbanicity, and health: a systematic review of the reliability and validity of urbanicity scales

Study Item development* Content validity Reliability+ Construct validity± Exploratory factor analysis Criterion validity
  Literature review Empirical study Panel of experts Review by target population. through, pre-tests, pilot studies Panel of experts Literature review Internal consistency Test-retest reliability Item/ total correlation    
Allender et al. 2011 [8]
Vavken et al. 2011 [37]
JC Jones-Smith et al. 2010 [34]
Antai et al. 2010 [39]
Monda et al. 2007 [23]
Van de Poel et al. 2012 [20]
Allender et al. 2010 [19]
Dahly et al. 2007 [3]
McDade et al. 2001 [4]
Liu et al. 2003 [36]
Van de Poel et al. 2009 [17]
  1. *No studies used focus groups, interview/key informant interview or authors personal preferences during item development; + no studies used split half reliability or inter-observer reliability during reliability assessment; ± no studies tested convergent validity or used principal component analysis of extreme group comparisons, confirmatory factor analysis, discriminant analysis or structural equation modelling to test construct validity.