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Table 3 Australian adults 16–18 years: Univariate and multivariate odds ratios for smoking, associated with socioeconomic factors and mental illness

From: Smoking, mental illness and socioeconomic disadvantage: analysis of the Australian National Survey of Mental Health and Wellbeing

Parameter Univariate odds ratios (a) Multivariate odds ratios (b)
  Odds ratio 95% CI Odds ratio 95% CI
Mental health status—     
  12 month disorder 3.26 2.69 - 3.95 2.43 1.97 - 3.01
  Lifetime disorder 2.52 2.04 - 3.12 2.15 1.72 - 2.70
  No mental illness 1.00   1.00  
Quintiles of household income—     
  Lowest quintile 2.29 1.76 - 3.00 (c)  
  Second quintile 1.64 1.22 - 2.21   
  Third quintile 1.36 1.02 - 1.81   
  Fourth quintile 1.28 0.99 - 1.65   
  Highest quintile 1.00    
  Not stated 1.56 1.14 - 2.13   
Quintiles of relative socioeconomic disadvantage—     
  Lowest quintile 2.26 1.72 - 2.96 1.23 0.92 - 1.63
  Second quintile 2.01 1.51 - 2.67 1.27 0.97 - 1.68
  Third quintile 1.46 1.17 - 1.83 1.05 0.81 - 1.35
  Fourth quintile 1.25 0.96 - 1.63 0.97 0.76 - 1.23
  Highest quintile 1.00   1.00  
Education—     
  Bachelor degree or higher 0.35 0.26 - 0.48 0.48 0.34 - 0.68
  Diploma 0.68 0.47 - 0.98 0.81 0.56 - 1.17
  Certificate I/II/III/IV 0.80 0.63 - 1.02 0.83 0.63 - 1.09
  Year 12 0.62 0.48 - 0.82 0.72 0.54 - 0.95
  Year 11 0.81 0.56 - 1.16 0.94 0.63 - 1.40
  Year 10 1.00   1.00  
  Year 9 or below 1.44 1.12 - 1.85 1.28 0.98 - 1.67
Whether ever been homeless—     
  Yes 5.45 3.91 - 7.60 1.82 1.23 - 2.69
  No 1.00   1.00  
Whether ever in gaol, prison or correctional facility—     
  Yes 6.54 4.10 - 10.30 2.64 1.44 - 4.87
  No 1.00   1.00  
Registered marital status—     
  Never married 2.49 2.00 - 3.10 1.60 1.25 - 2.06
  Married 1.00   1.00  
  Widowed 1.52 1.04 - 2.24 1.32 0.85 - 2.05
  Divorced 2.70 2.07 - 3.51 1.81 1.29 - 2.53
  Separated 3.48 2.49 - 4.86 2.09 1.35 - 3.22
Tenure type—     
  Owner without a mortgage 1.00   1.00  
  Owner with a mortgage 1.27 1.04 - 1.54 1.32 1.08 - 1.61
  Renter 2.60 2.10 - 3.21 1.96 1.52 - 2.52
  Other 1.85 1.17 - 2.92 1.78 1.15 - 2.75
Financial difficulties—     
  Yes 2.51 2.05 - 3.06 1.41 1.11 - 1.80
  No 1.00   1.00  
Labour force status—     
  Employed 1.00   1.00  
  Unemployed 3.27 2.07 - 5.17 2.25 1.12 - 4.54
  Not in the labour force 1.10 0.88 - 1.37 0.93 0.42 - 2.05
Occupation of main job—     
  Managers 1.00   1.00  
  Professionals 0.77 0.55 - 1.08 0.79 0.55 - 1.16
  Technicians and Trades Workers 1.72 1.20 - 2.45 1.24 0.88 - 1.74
  Community and Personal Service Workers 1.67 1.19 - 2.35 1.07 0.73 - 1.58
  Clerical and Administrative Workers 1.57 1.12 - 2.21 1.18 0.85 - 1.64
  Sales Workers 1.28 0.83 - 1.98 1.00 0.65 - 1.54
  Machinery Operators And Drivers 2.32 1.46 - 3.68 1.32 0.81 - 2.14
  Labourers 2.72 1.99 - 3.73 1.70 1.25 - 2.30
  Not applicable 1.84 1.38 - 2.44 1.01 0.42 - 2.42
Family composition of household—     
  Couple family with dependent children 0.65 0.53 - 0.81 0.70 0.57 - 0.87
  One parent family with dependent children 1.53 1.16 - 2.03 0.66 0.46 - 0.94
  Couple only 1.00   1.00  
  Other one family households 1.92 1.49 - 2.46 1.65 1.24 - 2.18
  Multiple family households 1.63 0.91 - 2.92 1.50 0.76 - 2.96
  Lone person household 1.64 1.41 - 1.91 0.87 0.69 - 1.09
  Group household 1.81 1.11 - 2.94 1.13 0.67 - 1.90
Main source of income—     
  Employee cash income 1.00   (c)  
  Unincorporated business cash income 0.82 0.55 - 1.21   
  Government cash pensions and allowances 1.91 1.51 - 2.41   
  Other cash income 0.98 0.65 - 1.46   
  None of the above 0.73 0.50 - 1.07   
  1. (a) Univariate odds ratios adjusting for age and sex.
  2. (b) Multivariate odds ratios adjusting for all variables shown and age and sex.
  3. (c) Not significantly associated with smoking status in multivariate model and eliminated from final model.