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Table 1 Australian adults 16–85 years: Proportion of population, proportion who smoke and proportion with 12-month mental illness, by socioeconomic factors

From: Smoking, mental illness and socioeconomic disadvantage: analysis of the Australian National Survey of Mental Health and Wellbeing

Parameter Proportion of population Current smokers 12-month mental illness
  Percent 95% CI Percent 95% CI Percent 95% CI
Quintiles of household income—       
  Lowest quintile 16.8 15.7 - 17.8 24.4 22.0 - 26.8 23.6 20.9 - 26.3
  Second quintile 17.0 15.7 - 18.3 23.1 19.5 - 26.7 20.0 17.0 - 23.1
  Third quintile 17.0 15.8 - 18.2 21.9 18.5 - 25.3 21.3 18.0 - 24.5
  Fourth quintile 16.8 15.7 - 18.0 22.2 19.5 - 25.0 17.7 14.4 - 20.9
  Highest quintile 17.0 15.9 - 18.1 18.4 15.4 - 21.4 17.9 14.9 - 20.9
  Not stated 15.4 14.2 - 16.6 23.7 19.3 - 28.2 19.3 15.8 - 22.8
    χ2 = 8.19, p = 0.15 χ2 = 23.2, p = 0.010
Quintiles of relative socioeconomic disadvantage—       
  Lowest quintile 16.7 14.6 - 18.8 29.6 26.1 - 33.1 21.4 18.4 - 24.4
  Second quintile 18.5 16.1 - 20.9 26.8 23.8 - 29.9 20.9 18.5 - 23.2
  Third quintile 20.0 17.7 - 22.3 21.8 19.1 - 24.5 21.3 18.0 - 24.7
  Fourth quintile 21.8 19.1 - 24.5 19.8 17.2 - 22.3 21.2 18.7 - 23.7
  Highest quintile 23.0 20.8 - 25.2 16.1 13.2 - 19.0 15.9 13.1 - 18.6
    χ2 = 53.5, p < 0.001 χ2 = 19.8, p = 0.011
Education—       
  Bachelor degree or higher 20.0 19.4 - 20.5 13.4 10.8 - 16.0 16.9 14.7 - 19.2
  Diploma 8.5 8.1 - 8.9 21.4 16.6 - 26.2 21.9 17.9 - 25.8
  Certificate I/II/III/IV 25.4 24.4 - 26.3 24.8 22.0 - 27.6 20.2 17.9 - 22.4
  Year 12 14.4 13.4 - 15.5 22.2 18.8 - 25.6 22.4 19.2 - 25.5
  Year 11 6.7 5.9 - 7.4 25.7 20.1 - 31.3 20.9 16.4 - 25.5
  Year 10 13.6 12.6 - 14.6 26.8 23.0 - 30.5 21.9 17.7 - 26.0
  Year 9 or below 11.4 10.6 - 12.2 25.5 22.2 - 28.9 17.6 14.4 - 20.7
    χ2 = 50.4, p < 0.001 χ2 = 24.4, p = 0.017
Whether ever been homeless—       
  Yes 3.0 2.6 - 3.5 61.0 53.3 - 68.8 53.6 45.7 - 61.5
  No 97.0 96.5 - 97.4 21.1 19.7 - 22.4 18.9 17.9 - 20.0
    χ2 = 136.2, p < 0.001 χ2 = 253.5, p < 0.001
Whether ever in gaol, prison or correctional facility—       
  Yes 2.4 2.0 - 2.8 64.9 55.1 - 74.8 41.1 30.6 - 51.6
  No 97.6 97.2 - 98.0 21.2 19.9 - 22.6 19.4 18.4 - 20.5
    χ2 = 99.3, p < 0.001 χ2 = 50.8, p < 0.001
Registered marital status—       
  Never married 32.5 31.3 - 33.7 30.9 28.6 - 33.2 27.9 25.7 - 30.0
  Married 53.0 51.7 - 54.4 15.5 13.5 - 17.5 14.5 12.6 - 16.3
  Widowed 4.5 4.2 - 4.9 13.3 10.0 - 16.6 16.7 12.0 - 21.4
  Divorced 7.5 6.8 - 8.2 32.3 27.2 - 37.4 22.6 18.6 - 26.6
  Separated 2.5 2.1 - 2.9 39.5 32.5 - 46.6 31.8 25.5 - 38.1
    χ2 = 193.5, p < 0.001 χ2 = 164.9, p < 0.001
Tenure type—       
  Owner without a mortgage 32.5 30.8 - 34.1 13.7 12.0 - 15.3 14.7 13.1 - 16.4
  Owner with a mortgage 39.9 38.3 - 41.5 21.1 19.1 - 23.2 20.3 18.0 - 22.5
  Renter 24.7 23.2 - 26.1 34.9 32.0 - 37.8 26.5 24.1 - 28.8
  Other 2.9 2.5 - 3.4 26.2 19.0 - 33.5 19.1 12.6 - 25.6
    χ2 = 178.5, p < 0.001 χ2 = 96.3, p < 0.001
Financial difficulties—       
  Yes 14.5 13.4 - 15.6 39.8 35.3 - 44.2 39.1 35.3 - 42.8
  No 85.5 84.4 - 86.6 19.3 18.0 - 20.7 16.7 15.5 - 17.9
    χ2 = 101.3, p < 0.001 χ2 = 172.9, p < 0.001
Labour force status—       
  Employed 65.2 64.8 - 65.6 23.4 21.7 - 25.1 20.3 18.7 - 21.8
  Unemployed 2.6 2.5 - 2.7 50.8 38.9 - 62.6 29.4 20.3 - 38.4
  Not in the labour force 32.2 31.8 - 32.5 17.6 15.6 - 19.7 18.6 16.9 - 20.3
    χ2 = 54.7, p < 0.001 χ2 = 23.9, p < 0.001
Occupation of main job—       
  Managers 8.9 8.0 - 9.9 17.6 14.4 - 20.8 18.7 14.9 - 22.4
  Professionals 13.2 12.2 - 14.3 13.9 10.8 - 17.0 18.6 15.4 - 21.8
  Technicians and Trades Workers 9.2 8.3 - 10.1 28.9 23.7 - 34.2 21.1 16.2 - 25.9
  Community & Personal Services 6.0 5.4 - 6.7 24.9 19.8 - 30.0 22.5 17.0 - 28.1
  Clerical and Administrative Workers 10.0 9.1 - 11.0 23.7 19.4 - 28.1 22.0 18.6 - 25.3
  Sales Workers 6.4 5.6 - 7.2 20.7 15.3 - 26.1 20.8 16.2 - 25.4
  Machinery Operators And Drivers 3.9 3.2 - 4.6 34.4 26.9 - 41.8 19.1 11.9 - 26.2
  Labourers 7.1 6.3 - 7.9 36.6 30.8 - 42.5 20.6 15.2 - 25.9
  Not applicable 35.3 34.9 - 35.7 20.1 18.0 - 22.1 19.3 17.7 - 21.0
    χ2 = 89.9, p < 0.001 χ2 = 32.6, p = 0.008
Family composition of household—       
  Couple with dependent children 33.4 32.1 - 34.7 17.6 15.0 - 20.2 18.7 16.1 - 21.3
  One parent with dependent children 4.7 4.1 - 5.2 30.7 25.0 - 36.4 33.8 26.9 - 40.7
  Couple only 27.3 26.5 - 28.0 16.7 15.1 - 18.3 14.4 13.0 - 15.9
  Other one family households 14.5 13.1 - 15.9 33.0 28.4 - 37.6 23.5 18.8 - 28.2
  Multiple family households 2.9 2.3 - 3.5 29.0 17.1 - 40.9 22.1 12.2 - 32.1
  Lone person household 13.2 12.9 - 13.4 25.1 23.0 - 27.1 22.8 21.0 - 24.5
  Group household 4.1 3.3 - 4.9 37.0 27.6 - 46.4 28.5 19.8 - 37.3
    χ2 = 95.9, p < 0.001 χ2 = 57.7, p < 0.001
Main source of income—       
  Employee cash income 55.5 54.5 - 56.6 23.6 21.6 - 25.5 20.5 19.0 - 22.0
  Unincorporated business cash income 5.7 4.9 - 6.5 19.3 13.6 - 25.0 16.2 11.2 - 21.2
  Government pensions and allowances 22.5 21.7 - 23.2 24.9 22.0 - 27.8 23.1 21.0 - 25.2
  Other cash income 10.3 9.2 - 11.3 13.9 10.1 - 17.7 14.8 11.1 - 18.5
  None of the above 6.0 5.3 - 6.7 17.5 12.4 - 22.6 15.7 10.8 - 20.6
    χ2 = 23.4, p < 0.001 χ2 = 44.6, p < 0.001