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Table 1 Comparison of the Parental Bonding Inventory (PBI), Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ), 20-item Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20), and Chinese Health Questionnaire (CHQ) among the three groups: deliberate self-harm (DSH), intention to suicide (ITS), and control participants (n = 171)

From: Parental bonding and personality characteristics of first episode intention to suicide or deliberate self-harm without a history of mental disorders

  Control DSH ITS   
(n = 66) (n = 69) (n = 36)
  mean (SD) mean (SD) mean (SD) ANOVA Tukey post hoc test
PBI      
 Paternal control and protection 8.86 (8.62) −10.18 (5.95) 0.94 (9.27) F = 101.05 Control > ITS MD = −1.66 p = 0.705
p < 0.001 DSH < ITS MD = 9.48 p < 0.001
  Control > DSH MD = 11.15 p < 0.001
 Maternal control and protection 10.47 (9.52) −3.62 (5.64) 7.28 (10.16) F = 51.56 Control > ITS MD = 1.22 p = 0.801
p < 0.001 DSH < ITS MD = 10.17 p < 0.001
  Control > DSH MD = 8.96 p < 0.001
EPQ      
 Extraversion 7.62 (3.76) 6.47 (4.24) 4.95 (4.11) F = 5.19 Control > ITS MD = −2.82 p = 0.001
p = 0.007 DSH > ITS MD = −0.47 p = 0.858
  Control > DSH MD = 2.82 p = 0.001
 Neuroticism 3.44 (3.34) 4.91 (3.55) 7.37 (3.89) F = 14.34 Control < ITS MD = 4.56 p < 0.001
p < 0.001 DSH < ITS MD = 0.12 p = 0.984
  Control < DSH MD = −4.44 p < 0.001
TAS-20      
 Difficulty identifying feelings 17.00 (6.35) 19.83 (6.75) 24.47 (7.26) F = 14.45 Control < ITS MD = 8.33 p < 0.001
p < 0.001 DSH < ITS MD = 0.93 p = 0.782
  Control < DSH MD = −7.40 p < 0.001
 CHQ 2.66 (2.87) 3.99 (3.34) 6.13 (3.77) F = 13.19 Control < ITS MD = 3.87 p < 0.001
p < 0.001 DSH < ITS MD = 0.41 p = 0.818
  Control < DSH MD = −3.46 p < 0.001