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Table 1 Descriptive characteristics of student study population (N = 17 249)

From: Exposure to public natural space as a protective factor for emotional well-being among young people in Canada

Variable n %
Individual-level   
Gender   
 Boys 8 196 47.5
 Girls 9 053 52.5
Age (years)   
 ≤11 2 378 13.8
 12 3 474 20.1
 13 3 331 19.3
 14 3 314 19.2
 15 3 404 19.7
 ≥16 1 348 7.8
Ethnicity   
 Caucasian 12 254 71.0
 Aboriginal 1 085 6.3
 East and Southeast Asian 1 032 6.0
 South Asian 445 2.6
 West Asian and Arab 212 1.2
 Black 318 1.8
 Other 578 3.4
 Mixed 1 325 7.7
Family affluence   
 Low (FAS 0–3) 1 305 7.6
 Medium (FAS 4–5) 5 991 34.7
 High (FAS 6–7) 9 953 57.7
Neighborhood is safe for playing   
 1 (disagree/strongly disagree) 1 256 7.3
 2 (neither agree/disagree) 2 904 16.8
 3 (agree) 7 860 45.6
 4 (strongly agree) 5 229 30.3
Area-level   
Neighborhood rundown houses   
 Not a problem 12 989 75.3
 Minor problem 3 187 18.5
 Moderate/major problem 1 073 6.2
Neighborhood litter/garbage   
 Not a problem 5 467 31.7
 Minor problem 8 934 51.8
 Moderate/major problem 2 848 16.5
Neighborhood SES   
 Low (lowest tertile) 4 994 29.0
 Medium 6 008 34.8
 High (highest tertile) 6 247 36.2
Urban/rural geographic location   
 Rural area (<10 000) 4 809 27.9
 Small city (10 000–99 999) 7 085 41.1
 Metropolitan area (≥100 000) 5 355 31.0
  1. FAS, Family Affluence Scale.
  2. SES, Socio-economic status.