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Table 3 Measurements and collection of biological samples during the physical examination

From: Unravelling the impact of ethnicity on health in Europe: the HELIUS study


Laboratory measurements

- anthropometry (weight, height, and circumferences of waist, hip, thigh, arm, and calf),

- fasting blood sample: haemoglobin, HbA1c, glucose, triglycerides, total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, creatinine

- body fat percentage (using bioelectrical impedance),

- morning urine sample: pH, glucose, ketones, leucocytes, nitrite, protein, and erythrocytes (dipstick), microalbumin, creatinine

- hand grip strength,

- blood pressure (sitting position) and ankle-arm index (in supine position),

- arterial stiffness using Arteriograph (oscillometrically measured pulse wave velocity, aortic augmentation index, central systolic blood pressure),

- heart function using Nexfin (non-invasive haemodynamics such as stroke volume, cardiac output, and systemic vascular resistance),

- electrocardiogram (left ventricular hypertrophy, infarction, etc.),

- medication use,

- health literacy test,

- respiratory symptoms, vaginal hygiene (women)

- collection of biological samples (fasting blood sample, morning urine sample, faeces sample, nasal and throat swabs, a vaginal swab in women)