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Table 2 Variables measured in the HELIUS questionnaire

From: Unravelling the impact of ethnicity on health in Europe: the HELIUS study

Theme Explanatory factors Outcomes
General Demographic factors: General health, chronic conditions, quality of life (SF-12), functional limitations
Sex, age, marital status, household composition
Country of birth of respondent and his/her (grand)parents
Explanatory mechanisms that link ethnicity to health:
Migration history, educational level and occupational status, religion, cultural distance (acculturation), ethnic identity, perceived discrimination (Everyday Discrimination Scale)
Proximal risk factors:
- Health-related behaviour: Smoking, alcohol intake, cannabis use, physical activity, weight perception, fruit intake, vegetarian diet, dietary pattern (breakfast, lunch, evening meal), coffee/tea intake, sugary drinks intake
- Health care use and related factors: Ability to understand medical information (health literacy), compliance with medication, perceived quality of GP, health care use (GP, specialists, psychological care, alternative health care), health care use in other countries
- Working conditions: physical activity at work, work-related recovery opportunities
Cardiovascular health Proximal risk factors: Angina pectoris, myocardial infarction, intermittent claudication (Rose Questionnaire), heart failure, cerebrovascular events
History of high blood pressure/hypercholesterolaemia/diabetes, family history of high blood pressure/hypercholesterolaemia/diabetes/cardiovascular disease/sudden death, fainting history, age of menarche, age of menopause
Mental health Proximal risk factors: Depressive disorders (PHQ-9), nicotine use-related disorder (Fagerström), alcohol use-related disorder (AUDIT), cannabis use-related disorder (CUDIT)
perceived social support (DES subscale), childhood trauma, parental psychiatric history, mastery (Pearlin-Schooler Mastery Scale), neuroticism and extraversion (NEO Five-Factor Inventory), stressful life events
Infectious diseases Proximal risk factors: History and presence of allergy, asthma, rhinitis, food allergy, urogenital infections
  Family history of allergy/asthma, travel behaviour (visited other countries), use of self-tests, blood transfusions, use of drugs by injection, surgery in other countries, sexual behaviour, use of contraceptives (women), human papilloma virus (HPV) vaccination (women), circumcision (men)