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Table 1 Information on the migration history of the ethnic minority groups included in HELIUS

From: Unravelling the impact of ethnicity on health in Europe: the HELIUS study

Ethnic group Migration history
Surinamese The Surinamese migrated to the Netherlands from Suriname, a former Dutch colony in South America. Surinamese with an Afro-Caribbean background (‘Creole’) are mainly the descendants of West Africans, and those with a South Asian background (‘Hindustani’) have their roots in North India. Both groups migrated to Suriname in the nineteenth century. Their migration from Suriname to the Netherlands was mainly due to the unstable political situation in Suriname in 1975 and 1980. Ethnic minority groups with comparable South Asian and African-Caribbean backgrounds can also be found in other European countries, including the United Kingdom (UK).
Turks and Morrocans Turks and Moroccans form important migrant groups, not only in the Netherlands but also in other West European countries (Belgium, France, Spain, Italy, and Germany). Migration from Turkey and Morocco was encouraged in the 1960s and early 1970s to fill labour shortages in unskilled occupations. The initial period of labour migration was followed by a second period (1970–1980) in which many guest workers brought their spouses and children to the Netherlands. Since then, many young Turkish and Moroccan people have chosen partners from their region of origin.
Ghanaian The migration of Ghanaians to the Netherlands occurred in two phases. The first phase (between 1974 and 1983) was due to economic reasons. The second phase (in the early 1990s) was linked to drought, political instability, and the expulsion of Ghanaians from Nigeria. Ghanaians are also an important migrant group in the UK and Germany.