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Table 3 Outcomes for all participants

From: “We wouldn’t of made friends if we didn’t come to Football United”:the impacts of a football program on young people’s peer, prosocial and cross-cultural relationships

Outcome FUn Comparison Statistic P Effect size Power
Strengths and difficulties, mean (SD)       
  Emotional symptoms 3.27 (2.61) 3.32 (2.07) t2,133 = 0.13 0.90 0.02 0.06
  Hyperactivity 2.88 (2.09) 2.96 (1.66) t2,129 = 0.24 0.82 0.04 0.08
  Peer problems 2.95 (2.05) 3.19 (1.57) t2,131 = 0.75 0.46 0.13 0.18
  Prosocial behaviour 8.56 (1.44) 8.05 (2.21) t2,136 = 1.64 0.10 0.27 0.50
Other-group orientation, mean (SD) 1.80 (0.62) 2.12 (0.68) t2,140 = 2.30 0.006 0.46 0.90
Resilience*, mean (SD) 3.59 (1.07) 3.69 (1.06) t2,138 = 0.54 0.59 0.09 0.14
Social inclusion, mean (SD)       
  Most people can be trusted† 2.48 (0.92) 2.29 (0.95) t2,138 = 1.15 0.25 0.20 0.33
  Run into friends in the local area† 2.48 (0.96) 2.56 (0.84) t2,138 = 0.53 0.59 0.09 0.13
Social inclusion, n(%)       
  Have family members living in the neighbourhood    χ2 1 = 3.26 0.07 0.01  
   Yes 34 (54.8) 55 (69.6)     
   No 28 (45.2) 24 (30.4)     
  Have close friends in the neighbourhood    χ2 1 = 0.07 0.79 0.01  
   Yes 32 (51.6) 39 (49.4)     
   No 30 (48.4) 40 (50.6)     
  Know people living in the neighbourhood    χ2 1 = 2.56 0.11 0.01  
   Many or most 41 (66.1) 58 (78.4)     
  Few or none 21 (33.9) 16 (21.6)     
  1. Lower score is more positive response, ie.fewer emotional symptoms, less hyperactive behaviour and fewer peer problems.
  2. Higher score is more positive response, ie. more prosocial behaviour and more resilient.
  3. * Ability to adapt to changes and bounce back after illness, injury or other hardships.