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Table 1 Inclusion and exclusion criteria

From: Social determinants of health and seasonal influenza vaccination in adults ≥65 years: a systematic review of qualitative and quantitative data

  Definition of inclusion criteria Exclusion criteria
Population of interest Adults ≥65 years old, irrespective of setting Adults < 65 years old
Studies that only include specific subpopulations irrelevant for study aim (i.e. diabetes, HIV)
Intervention of interest Seasonal influenza vaccination Interventions not related to seasonal influenza, (AH1N1, pandemic or epidemic periods, vaccine shortage)
Actions to address barriers against vaccination (i.e. advertising, provider mailings, patient and staff education, visiting nurses)
Comparisons of interest Not been immunized Different vaccines
Populations without access to immunization
Outcome measures of periods before seasonal immunization campaigns
Populations or groups without the intervention that promote immunization or avoid barriers
Exposures of interest Barriers against vaccination  
Social determinants of health
• Socio-economic & political context: governance, policy (macroeconomic, social, health), cultural and societal norms and values
• Social position: education, occupation, income, gender, ethnicity/race
• Material circumstances, social cohesion, psychosocial factors, beliefs, behaviours, biological factors
• Health care system, distribution of health and well-being
Outcome of interest Vaccine coverage Pharmacological aspects of the vaccine
Study designs Qualitative (case-studies, ethnography, grounded theory, phenomenology; or specific techniques as focus groups, in-depth interviews, surveys, participant observation) Reviews, cost-effectiveness or economic analyses
Quantitative (descriptive, cross sectional, case–control, cohort, randomized controlled trial), mixed-methods