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Table 3 Impact of migration on health-related quality of life after adjustment for potential confounders, Ballabeina and Youp’là Bouge studies

From: Health-related quality of life in migrant preschool children

After adjustment for   Parental characteristics Children’s characteristics
After adjustment for No adjustment § Parental educational Level Paternal occupation Country of birth Body mass index Screen time Playing outside
Ballabeina        
 Emotional functioning 1.75 2.05 1.78 1.69 1.79 2.28 1.00
(0.18, 3.31) * (0.33, 3.78)* (0.21, 3.35)* (0.11, 3.27)* (0.20, 3.38)* (0.65, 3.91)** (−0.67, 2.68) NS
 Social functioning −2.53 −1.60 −2.21 −2.7 −2.32 −1.92 −2.85
(−3.96, -1.11)*** (−3.16, -0.03)* (−3.64, -0.78)** (−4.17, -1.24)*** (−3.76, -0.88)*** (−3.41, -0.44)* (−4.38, -1.33)***
 School functioning −1.54 −0.61 −1.37 −1.50 −1.38 −0.65 −1.62
(−3.02, -0.05) * (−2.21, 1.00) NS (−2.86, 0.13) NS (−3.02, 0.02) NS (−2.89, 0.12) NS (−2.16, 0.85) NS (−3.23, -0.01)*
 Physical health −2.04 −1.10 −1.97 −1.93 −1.92 −1.27 −2.18
(−3.49, -0.59) ** (−2.67, 0.47) NS (−3.43, -0.52)** (−3.42, -0.45)* (−3.38, -0.47)** (−2.75, 0.21) NS (−3.65, -0.71)**
 Psychosocial health −0.77 −0.07 −0.59 −0.81 −0.61 −0.09 −1.15
(−1.92, 0.39) NS (−1.33, 1.20) NS (−1.74, 0.57) NS (−1.98, 0.36) NS (−1.76, 0.55) NS (−1.28, 1.09) NS (−2.37, 0.08) NS
 Total score −1.23 −0.45 −1.09 −1.24 −1.09 −0.52 −1.52
(−2.35, -0.12)* (−1.66, 0.77) NS (−2.21, 0.02) NS (−2.37, -0.10)* (−2.21, 0.03) NS (−1.66, 0.62) NS (−2.67, -0.36)**
Youp’là Bouge        
 Emotional functioning −0.46 −0.76 −0.46 −0.53 NA −0.55 −0.33
(−1.57, 0.65) NS (−1.94, 0.41) NS (−1.58, 0.66) NS (−1.67, 0.60) NS   (−1.70, 0.59) NS (−1.49, 0.83) NS
 Social functioning −1.23 −1.27 −1.23 −1.18 NA −1.14 −0.88
(−2.18, -0.28) * (−2.28, -0.26)* (−2.19, -0.28)* (−2.15, -0.20)*   (−2.11, -0.16)* (−1.88, 0.11) NS
 School functioning −2.91 −2.73 −2.84 −3.02 NA −2.56 −2.62
(−3.88, -1.94)*** (−3.76, -1.71)*** (−3.82, -1.86)*** (−4.01, -2.02)***   (−3.55, -1.57)*** (−3.64, -1.61)***
 Physical health −1.33 −1.70 −1.42 −1.42 NA −1.37 −1.09
(−2.30, -0.36)** (−2.73, -0.68)*** (−2.39, -0.45)** (−2.41, -0.43)**   (−2.36, -0.37)** (−2.10, -0.08)*
 Psychosocial health −1.57 −1.64 −1.55 −1.62 NA −1.46 −1.32
(−2.33, -0.82)*** (−2.44, -0.83)*** (−2.32, -0.79)*** (−2.39, -0.84)***   (−2.24, -0.68)*** (−2.11, -0.53)***
 Total score −1.45 −1.66 −1.48 −1.51 NA −1.41 −1.20
(−2.20, -0.69)*** (−2.47, -0.86)*** (−2.24, -0.73)*** (−2.29, -0.73)*** (−2.19, -0.63)*** (−1.99, -0.40)**
  1. Impact of having one or more migrant parent(s) on the children’s quality of life. Statistical analysis by mixed linear regression models with age and gender as fixed factors and preschool class/child care as cluster with random effect, adjusting for the respective potential confounder. § same as the last column of Table 2. Results are presented as β-coefficient and (95% confidence interval). In the case the association between the PedsQLTM 4.0 score and parental migrant status is modified by the confounder (for example a significant association that becomes non-significant after adjusting for the potential confounder), the confounder is considered as mediating the association. NS, not significant; *, p < 0.05; **, p < 0.01; ***, p < 0.001. NA not applicable, as data were available for half of the children only (488/975 children).