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Table 4 Factors associated with Chlamydia and/or Gonorrhea among HIV-infected women without chlamydia and gonorrhea symptoms and/or signs (N = 655)

From: Sexually transmitted infections among HIV-infected women in Thailand

Characteristics Chlamydia and/or Gonorrhea (No., %) OR (95% CI) P value Adjusted ORd(95% CI) P value
  Yes (n = 38) No (n = 617)     
Age
  ≤25 yrs 8 (9.9) 73 (90.1) 2.0 (0.8, 4.7) c 0.12 f   
  >25 yrs 30 (5.2) 542 (94.8) 1    
Years of education
  ≤ Primary school 19 (6.3) 282 (93.7) 1.2 (0.6, 2.4) 0.73   
  > Primary school 19 (5.4) 334 (94.6) 1    
Clinic
  Siriraj Hospital 26 (8.5) 279 (91.5) 12.9 (3.2, 112.5) <0.01 12.1 (2.8, 52.0) <0.01
  Rajavithi Hospital 10 (13.9) 62 (86.1) 22.3 (4.5, 211.3) <0.01 20.3 (4.2, 98.4) <0.01
  Bamrasnaradura Institute 2 (0.7) 276 (99.3) 1   1  
Pregnancy
  Yes 5 (12.5) 35 (87.5) 2.5 (0.7, 7.1) c 0.07 f -  
  No 33 (5.4) 582 (94.6) 1    
Sex work
  Previous/current1 4 (13.3) 26 (86.7) 2.4 (0.6, 7.6) c 0.12 f -  
  Never 32 (6.0) 503 (94.0) 1    
Casual partner last 3 months 2
  Yes 3 (13.6) 19 (86.4) 2.4 (0.4, 8.7) c 0.17 f 6.3 (1.6, 24.7) 0.01
  No 33 (6.2) 498 (93.8) 1    
Steady partner last 3 months 3
  Yes 21 (5.8) 339 (94.2) 0.7 (0.4, 1.6) 0.52   
  No 16 (7.6) 195 (92.4) 1    
Condom use last 3 months 4
  No 10 (8.8) 103 (91.1) 1.6 (0.6, 4.1) 0.36   
  Yes 14 (4.8) 279 (95.2) 0.8 (0.4, 1.9) 0.80   
  No sex last 3 months 14 (5.6) 235 (94.4) 1    
Time after infection
  < 6 months 5 (5.3) 90 (94.7) 0.9 (0.3, 2.3) c 0.97   
   6 months 32 (6.0) 503 (94.0) 1    
Latest CD4 count
  0-200 cells/mm3 10 (5.2) 183 (94.8) 0.8 (0.4, 1.8) 0.78   
  > 200 cells/mm3 28 (6.1) 431 (93.9) 1    
Latest viral load
  ≤50 copies/mL 9 (5.1) 169 (94.9) 0.9 (0.2, 4.0) c 0.76 f   
  > 50 copies/mL 4 (5.8) 65 (94.2) 1    
Current ARV
  No 21 (7.8) 249 (92.2) 2.0 (1.0, 4.3) 0.07 -  
  Yes 14 (4.0) 336 (96.0) 1    
  1. f Fisher Exact test.
  2. c Exact Confidence Limits.
  3. d Adjusted for clinic, pregnancy, sex work history, casual partner last 3 months, and current ARV treatment.
  4. 1 Current refer to sex work during last 3 months, Previous = Ever had sex work in the past but not practicing sex work during last 3 months.
  5. 2 Casual partner refer to a person that has sex with but do not fit in the definition of CSW nor steady partner.
  6. 3 Steady partner refer to a person that has been known for more than 2 months, having regular sex and feel psychological connected.
  7. 4 Vaginal and/or anal sex.
  8. Denominator may vary due to missing data.