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Table 1 Characteristics of HIV-infected women at three clinics in Thailand, according to presence or absence of chlamydia and/or gonorrhea symptoms or signs

From: Sexually transmitted infections among HIV-infected women in Thailand

Characteristics Number (%) of women Number with chlamydia or gonorrhea symptoms/signs* Number without chlamydia or gonorrhea symptoms/signs* P-value
  (N = 1,124) (n = 469, 41.7%) (95 % CI: 38.8-44.7) (n = 655, 58.3%) (95% CI: 55.3-61.2)  
Demographic characteristics
Age, years (median (IQR)) 32 (28-37) 31 (26-35) 33 (29-38) <0.01
   ≤25 178 (15.8) 97 (20.7) 81 (12.4)  
   >25 944 (84.0) 372 (79.3) 572 (87.3)  
   Missing 2 (0.2) 0 (0.0) 2 (0.3)  
Hospital
   Siriraj Hospital 458 (40.7) 153 (32.6) 305 (46.6) <0.01
   Rajavithi Hospital 300 (26.7) 228 (48.6) 72 (11.0) <0.01
   Bamrasnaradura Institute 366 (32.6) 88 (18.8) 278 (42.4) <0.01
Highest level of education, years (median (IQR)) 9 (6-12) 7 (6-12) 9 (6-12) 0.30
   ≤ Grade 6 530 (47.1) 229 (48.8) 301 (46.0)  
   > Grade 6 593 (52.8) 240 (51.2) 353 (53.9)  
   Missing 1 (0.1) 0 (0.0) 1 (0.1)  
Years since HIV diagnosis (median (IQR)) 3.2 (0.8-6.6 years) 2.7 (0.5-5.8 years) 3.4 (1.1-7.4 years) 0.02
Cause of HIV infection
   Heterosexual 1025 (91.2) 427 (91.0) 598 (91.3) 0.88
   Other 99 (8.8) 42 (9.0) 57 (8.7)  
Pregnancy
   Yes 124 (11.0) 84 (17.9) 40 (6.1) <0.01
Clinical characteristics
Most recent CD4 count (cells/mm3)
(median (IQR)) 292 (140-453) 265 (110-438) 340 (160-460) 0.02
   ≤ 200 369 (32.8) 176 (37.5) 193 (29.5) <0.01
   > 200 744 (66.2) 285 (61.8) 459 (70.0)  
   Unknown or missing 11 (1.0) 8 (1.7) 3 (0.5)  
Most recent HIV viral load: HIV-1 RNA (copies/mL) median (IQR) <50 (<50- < 50) <50 (<50- < 50) <50 (<50- < 50)  
   ≤ 50 178 (15.8) 37 (7.9) 141 (21.5) <0.01
   > 50 69 (6.2) 33 (7.0) 36 (5.5)  
   Missing 877 (78.0) 399 (85.1) 478 (73.0)  
Currently on antiretroviral treatment     
   No 522 (46.4) 252 (53.7) 270 (41.2) <0.01
   Yes 521 (46.4) 171 (36.5) 350 (53.5)  
   Unknown or missing 81 (7.2) 46 (9.8) 35 (5.3)  
Behaviors in last 3 months
Sex in the last 3 months1 722 (64.2) 316 (67.4) 406 (62.0) 0.06
• Had steady partner2
   Yes 622 (86.2) 277 (87.6) 345 (85.0) 0.30
     Condom at last sex 66.7% 59.3% 73.0%  
   No 66 (9.1) 28 (8.9) 38 (9.3)  
   Missing 34 (4.7) 11 (3.5) 23 (5.7)  
• Had casual partner 3
   Yes 29 (4.0) 12 (3.8) 17 (4.2) 0.79
     Condom at last sex 56.0% 33.3% 76.9%  
   No 639 (88.5) 291 (92.1) 348 (85.7)  
   Missing 54 (7.5) 13 (4.1) 41 (10.1)  
  1. 1 Vaginal and/or anal sex.
  2. 2 Steady partner was defined as a person the woman has known for more than 2 months, with whom she has regular sex and to whom she feels psychologically connected.
  3. 3 Casual partner was defined as a person the woman has sex with and who do not meet the definition of CSW or steady partner.
  4. *Chlamydia and gonorrhea symptoms or signs were defined as STI symptoms or signs except genital wart, genital ulcer, genital lesions.