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Table 4 Impact of the health and Islamic-based interventions and their interactions on smoking intentions and behaviors

From: The impact of education programs on smoking prevention: a randomized controlled trial among 11 to 14 year olds in Aceh, Indonesia

Outcomes Main effect of health Main effect of Islam ICC3
  Health (n = 239) Non health (n = 237) OR (95% CI) p value1 Islam (n = 226) Non Islam (n = 250) OR (95% CI) p value2  
Intention to smoke next year, n (%)          
 Visit 1 46 (19.3) 31 (13.1)    32 (14.2) 45 (18.0)    
 Visit 2 27 (11.3) 21 (8.9) 1.1 (0.3,3.4) 0.91 21 (9.3) 27 (10.8) 1.0 (0.3, 3.1) 0.95 0.04
Intention to smoke in senior high school, n (%)          
 Visit 1 54 (22.6) 36 (15.2)    39 (17.3) 51 (20.4)    
 Visit 2 41 (17.2) 29 (12.2) 1.2 (0.4, 3.2) 0.73 33 (14.6) 37 (14.8) 1.1 (0.4, 3.1) 0.80 0.04
Intention to smoke over 50, n (%)          
Visit 1 63 (26.4) 49 (20.7)    48 (21.2) 64 (25.6)    
Visit 2 55 (23.0) 42 (17.7) 1.2 (0.6, 2.4) 0.52 48 (21.2) 49 (19.6) 1.4 (0.7, 2.7) 0.31 0.03
Past week smoking, n(%)          
 Visit 1 21 (8.8) 17 (7.2)    8 (3.5) 30 (12.0)    
 Visit 2 2 (0.8) 14 (6.0) 0.1 (0.0,1.5) 0.09 2 (0.9) 14 (5.6) 0.2 (0.0, 2.7) 0.23 0.02
Past month smoking, n(%)          
 Visit 1 19 (8.0) 13 (5.5)    8 (3.5) 24 (9.6)    
 Visit 2 8 (3.4) 7 (3.0) 0.9 (0.2,4.8) 0.92 7 (3.1) 8 (3.2) 1.9 (0.3, 10.6) 0.45 0.02
Lifetime smoking, n (%)          
Visit 1 57 (23.9) 45 (19.0)    34 (15.0) 68 (27.2)    
Visit 2 54 (22.6) 50 (21.1) 0.7 (0.3,1.6) 0.39 32 (14.2) 72 (28.8) 0.4 (0.2, 1.0) 0.06 0.05
  1. Note. Results for the main effects were obtained using a generalized linear model for the outcome with adjustment for baseline values and use of robust standard errors to account for the clustering within both classrooms and schools. In all analyses, the 4 groups were recoded into two factors: (1) Health, and (2) Islamic. Codes of one or zero were used for each factor depending on whether the subjects’ group was one that contained the respective health or Islamic factor. That is, control group (Islamic = 0, Health = 0), Islamic (Islamic = 1, Health = 0), Health (Health = 1, Islamic = 0), combined (Health = 1, Islamic = 1). A Health x Islam interaction term was not included in the models for these outcomes since the main effects for Health and Islam were not significant.
  2. 1Baseline adjusted effect of Health.
  3. 2 Baseline adjusted effect of Islam.
  4. 3ICC = Intra-class correlations coefficients, from mixed effects random intercept model.