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Table 3 Impact of the health and Islamic-based interventions and their interactions on knowledge and attitude

From: The impact of education programs on smoking prevention: a randomized controlled trial among 11 to 14 year olds in Aceh, Indonesia

Outcomes Main effect of health Main effect of Islam Health × Islam Interaction effect ICC5
  Health (n = 239) Non health (n = 237) β ± SE p value1 Islam (n = 226) Non Islam (n = 250) β ± SE p value2 β ± SE3 p value4  
Health Knowledge (mean ± SD)            
 Visit 1 6.7 ± 2.6 8.2 ± 2.7    7.3 ± 2.7 7.6 ± 2.7      
 Visit 2 11.9 ± 2.8 9.8 ± 2.9 3.9 ± 0.6 < 0.001 11.9 ± 2.4 9.8 ± 3.1 3.8 ± 0.6 < 0.001 −3.4 ± 0.9 < 0.01 0.10
Islamic Knowledge (mean ± SD)            
 Visit 1 10.0 ± 3.0 11.7 ± 2.5    11.0 ± 2.7 10.7 ± 3.1      
 Visit 2 11.5 ± 2.7 12.9 ± 3.0 0.1 ± 0.6 0.88 13.6 ± 2.6 11.0 ± 2.8 3.5 ± 0.5 < 0.001 −2.0 ± 0.8 0.02 0.08
Attitude (mean ± SD)            
 Visit 1 48.7 ± 12.7 41.8 ± 10.0    43.9 ± 10.6 46.4 ± 13.0      
 Visit 2 42.9 ± 11.0 40.3 ± 10.6 −3.0 ± 1.9 0.14 38.6 ± 10.3 44.3 ± 10.7 −7.1 ± 1.5 < 0.001 5.2 ± 3.0 0.11 0.08
  1. Note. Results for the main effects were obtained using a generalized linear model for the outcome with adjustment for baseline values and use of robust standard errors to account for the clustering within both classrooms and schools. In all analyses, the 4 groups were recoded into two factors: (1) Health, and (2) Islamic. Codes of one or zero were used for each factor depending on whether the subjects’ group was one that contained the respective health or Islamic factor. That is, control group (Islamic = 0, Health = 0), Islamic (Islamic = 1, Health = 0), Health (Health = 1, Islamic = 0), combined (Health = 1, Islamic = 1).
  2. 1 Baseline adjusted effect of Health.
  3. 2 Baseline adjusted effect of Islam.
  4. 3The interaction effect represents the additional effect of being in the combined group beyond the separate main effects presented for Health and Islam.
  5. 4P value for interaction between Health × Islam.
  6. 5ICC = Intra-class correlations coefficients, from mixed effects random intercept model.