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Table 3 Characteristics of the study population: school children (10 years), stratified by study region

From: Physical activity and its correlates in children: a cross-sectional study (the GINIplus & LISAplus studies)

    Munich (n 2075) Leipzig (n 319) Bad Honnef (n 161) Wesel (n 1285)  
    % % % % p-Value*
Physical activity a (per week)       
Summer Light < 6 h 30.4 24.8 24.2 20.4 <.0001
   6-14 h 46.3 44.5 46.6 41.9  
   > 14 h 23.3 30.7 29.2 37.7  
  Moderate < 5 h 34.9 29.5 32.9 22.8 <.0001
   5-9 h 34.8 40.1 28.0 33.5  
   > 9 h 30.2 30.4 39.1 43.7  
  Vigorous < 4 h 39.3 37.3 38.5 31.4 0.0003
   4-6 h 34.4 35.4 29.8 37.6  
   > 6 h 26.3 27.3 31.7 31.1  
Winter Light < 5 h 31.8 24.8 29.8 23.6 <.0001
   5-11 h 47.4 48.0 44.7 42.8  
   > 11 h 20.8 27.3 25.5 33.6  
  Moderate < 3 h 33.0 26.3 29.8 21.7 <.0001
   3-6 h 42.6 48.9 41.6 41.0  
   > 6 h 24.4 24.8 28.6 37.3  
  Vigorous < 3 h 38.0 26.7 32.3 28.9 <.0001
   3-4 h 32.5 36.4 29.8 33.9  
   > 4 h 29.5 37.0 37.9 37.3  
Biological        
Sex   Boys 52.3 52.4 50.9 51.5 0.9593
BMI b   Underweight 9.9 6.6 7.1 7.4 <.0001
   Normal weight 83.4 86.6 78.7 80.0  
   Overweight 4.9 4.9 10.3 9.3  
   Obese 1.8 2.0 3.9 3.3  
Start of puberty   Yes 30.3 34.7 31.5 27.7 0.0784
Siblings   Yes 86.6 82.8 89.4 91.1 <.0001
Parental BMI c Mother Underweight 3.1 2.4 3.9 1.5 <.0001
   Normal weight 72.9 65.8 64.7 67.1  
   Overweight 17.4 22.4 21.6 22.3  
   Obese 6.7 9.5 9.8 9.2  
  Father Underweight 0.3 0.0 0.0 0.2 <.0001
   Normal weight 47.5 45.0 43.2 37.1  
   Overweight 43.9 43.5 45.3 47.7  
   Obese 8.3 11.4 11.5 15.0  
Social       
Paternal education d Low 3.7 1.3 3.8 11.0 <.0001
   Middle 17.2 36.6 21.9 37.9  
   High 79.2 62.2 74.4 51.1  
Household income e Low 6.7 4.6 5.7 6.4 0.0667
   Middle 23.4 22.0 31.2 20.5  
   High 69.9 73.4 63.1 73.0  
Behavioral        
TV/PC (per day) Summer < 1 h 74.9 64.3 67.9 57.9 <.0001
   1-2 h 23.9 32.6 29.6 40.3  
   > 2 h 1.2 3.1 2.5 1.9  
  Winter < 1 h 43.7 30.9 22.6 16.4 <.0001
   1-2 h 50.1 53.6 66.7 66.0  
   > 2 h 6.3 15.5 10.7 17.6  
Method of arriving school f Active 67.9 47.3 50.6 68.5 <.0001
   Passive 25.1 43.9 38.1 23.2  
   Mixed 7.0 8.8 11.3 8.3  
Membership of a sports club Yes 85.9 76.3 89.4 85.6 <.0001
Time Outdoors (h per day)       
  Summer < 3 h 15.8 13.9 5.6 4.7 <.0001
   3-5 h 70.9 70.0 67.5 64.0  
   > 5 h 13.3 16.1 26.9 31.3  
  Winter < 2 h 36.4 31.0 28.3 20.5 <.0001
   2-3 h 57.9 60.2 63.5 64.8  
   > 3 h 5.7 8.8 8.2 14.7  
Psychological       
Emotional Symptoms g Normal 82.6 82.7 85.4 82.7 0.4985
   Borderline 6.9 8.2 5.7 8.4  
   Abnormal 10.5 9.2 8.9 9.0  
  1. *p-values from Pearsons Chi-Quadrat Test; aPhysical activity: light activity (no sweating. normal respiration. like walking). moderate activity (some sweating. moderately increased respiration. like cycling/swimming) and vigorous activity (strong sweating. fast respiration like ball games/training); bBMI according to the classification by Kromeyer-Hauschild et al.; cParental BMI according to WHO classification; dParental education: low (less than tenth grade). moderate (tenth grade). high (more than tenth grade); eHousehold income adjusted for size of household and study region (class size based on distribution of parternal education); fHow they reach school: active (by foot or by bike). passive (by car. bus or train). mixed (alternate active and passive way to school); gEmotional symptoms according to the German version of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire.