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Table 3 Logistic regression analysis of time perspective across all countries

From: Time perspective as a predictor of smoking status: findings from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Surveys in Scotland, France, Germany, China, and Malaysia

Predictors Non-smoker OR (95% CI)
Demographics  
Age (ref=55+yrs)  
18-24 yrs 0.469 (0.375-0.588)***
25-39 yrs 0.400 (0.346-0.461)***
40-54 yrs 0.504 (0.445-0.571)***
Sex (ref=female)  
Male 0.155 (0.139-0.173)***
Ethnicity (ref=otherwise)  
Majority 0.776 (0.658-0.916)**
Income (ref=low)  
Moderate 1.278 (1.118-1.460)***
High 1.398 (1.201-1.626)***
No answer 1.671 (1.377-2.028)***
Education (ref=low)  
Moderate 1.147 (0.990-1.328)
High 1.797 (1.526-2.116)***
No answer 1.992 (0.162-24.483)
Time perspective (ref=present-oriented)  
Future-oriented 1.357 (1.220-1.508)***
  1. **p<.01, ***p<.001.
  2. Note: the country variable was also controlled for in the analysis.