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Table 2 Association between 10 occupational agents and glioma in the seven-country INTEROCC study – five year lag period

From: INTEROCC case–control study: lack of association between glioma tumors and occupational exposure to selected combustion products, dusts and other chemical agents

  Formaldehyde Oil mist
  Cases (1,800) Controls (5,160) OR d 95% CI Cases (1,800) Controls (5,160) OR 95% CI
  n % c n %    n % n %   
Non exposed 1586 88.1 4639 89.9 1.0 - 1657 92.1 4810 93.2 1.0 -
Ever exposed a 96 5.3 283 5.5 0.8 0.6-1.1 63 3.5 151 2.9 0.8 0.6-1.1
Cumulative exposure b             
 Lowest tertile 32 1.8 99 1.9 0.9 0.6-1.3 12 0.7 50 1.0 0.5 0.3-1.0
 Middle tertile 28 1.6 88 1.7 0.8 0.5-1.4 24 1.3 49 0.9 1.0 0.6-1.7
 Highest tertile 34 1.9 94 1.8 0.7 0.5-1.1 23 1.3 50 1.0 0.9 0.5-1.6
Duration (years)             
 1 - 4 28 1.6 106 2.1 0.7 0.5-1.1 14 0.8 52 1.0 0.5 0.3-0.9
 5 - 9 22 1.2 85 1.6 0.6 0.4-1.1 22 1.2 47 0.9 1.1 0.6-1.8
 ≥ 10 44 2.4 90 1.7 1.1 0.7-1.7 23 1.3 50 1.0 0.9 0.5-1.6
  Diesel exhaust emissions Gasoline exhaust emissions
Non exposed 1458 81.0 4446 86.2 1.0 - 1558 86.6 4654 90.2 1.0 -
Ever exposed a 201 11.2 427 8.3 1.0 0.8-1.2 191 10.6 415 8.0 1.0 0.8-1.2
Cumulative exposure b             
 Lowest tertile 47 2.6 140 2.7 0.7 0.5-1.0 48 2.7 135 2.6 0.8 0.5-1.1
 Middle tertile 73 4.1 139 2.7 1.2 0.9-1.7 68 3.8 135 2.6 1.1 0.8-1.5
 Highest tertile 77 4.3 143 2.8 1.1 0.8-1.5 71 3.9 139 2.7 1.0 0.7-1.4
Duration (years)             
 1 - 4 57 3.2 153 3.0 0.8 0.6-1.2 51 2.8 135 2.6 0.8 0.6-1.2
 5 - 9 55 3.1 126 2.4 0.9 0.6-1.2 56 3.1 137 2.7 0.8 0.6-1.2
 ≥ 10 85 4.7 143 2.8 1.3 1.0-1.8 80 4.4 137 2.7 1.3 0.9-1.8
  Benzo(a)pyrene Sulphur dioxide
Non exposed 221 12.3 667 12.9 1.0 - 1775 98.6 5124 99.3 1.0 -
Ever exposed a 367 20.4 1056 20.5 0.8 0.6-1.0 20 1.1 19 0.4 2.0 1.0-3.8
Cumulative exposure b             
 Lowest tertile 94 5.2 344 6.7 0.7 0.5-0.9 11 0.6 7 0.1 3.1 1.2-8.5
 Middle tertile 118 6.6 344 6.7 0.8 0.6-1.1 3 0.2 6 0.1 1.2 0.3-5.0
 Highest tertile 149 8.3 353 6.8 0.9 0.7-1.2 6 0.3 6 0.1 1.4 0.4-4.7
Duration (years)             
 1 - 4 99 5.5 383 7.4 0.6 0.5-0.9 15 0.8 7 0.1 4.4 1.7-11.2
 5 - 9 126 7.0 305 5.9 1.0 0.8-1.4 2 0.1 6 0.1 0.3 0.0-2.2
 ≥ 10 136 7.6 353 6.8 0.8 0.6-1.1 3 0.2 6 0.1 1.1 0.3-4.6
  Asbestos Crystalline silica
Non exposed 1352 75.1 4204 81.5 1.0 - 1579 87.7 4712 91.3 1.0 -
Ever exposed a 292 16.2 621 12.0 0.9 0.8-1.1 200 11.1 413 8.0 1.0 0.8-1.2
Cumulative exposure b             
 Lowest tertile 89 4.9 210 4.1 0.8 0.6-1.1 54 3.0 135 2.6 0.8 0.3-1.2
 Middle tertile 100 5.6 200 3.9 1.1 0.8-1.4 68 3.8 135 2.6 1.1 0.8-1.5
 Highest tertile 103 5.7 211 4.1 1.0 0.7-1.3 74 4.1 138 2.7 1.1 0.8-1.5
Duration (years)             
 1 - 4 84 4.7 219 4.2 0.9 0.6-1.1 52 2.9 135 2.6 0.9 0.6-1.2
 5 - 9 104 5.8 191 3.7 1.0 0.7-1.3 61 3.4 136 2.6 0.9 0.7-1.3
 ≥ 10 104 5.8 211 4.1 1.0 0.8-1.3 83 4.6 137 2.7 1.2 0.9-1.7
  Wood dust Animal dust
Non exposed 1706 94.8 4933 95.6 1.0 - 1733 96.3 5006 97.0 1.0 -
Ever exposed a 88 4.9 204 4.0 1.1 0.8-1.5 66 3.7 147 2.8 0.6 0.6-1.2
Cumulative exposure b             
 Lowest tertile 31 1.7 66 1.3 1.1 0.7-1.8 18 1.0 49 0.9 0.7 0.4-1.4
 Middle tertile 31 1.7 66 1.3 1.1 0.7-1.8 24 1.3 49 0.9 0.9 0.5-1.5
 Highest tertile 26 1.4 68 1.3 1.1 0.6-1.7 23 1.3 49 0.9 0.9 0.5-1.5
Duration (years)             
 1 - 4 32 1.8 69 1.3 1.1 0.7-1.7 25 1.4 55 1.1 0.8 0.4-1.5
 5 - 9 27 1.5 63 1.2 1.1 0.7-1.8 17 0.9 43 0.8 0.9 0.5-1.6
 ≥ 10 29 1.6 68 1.3 1.1 0.7-1.8 23 1.3 49 0.9 0.8 0.4-1.4
  1. a Probability of exposure in the modified version of FINJEM ≥ 25%; duration ≥ 1 year; lag period of 5 years.
  2. b Calculated among exposed subject as ∑Probability × Level × Duration of each job held by a subject; cut-points at tertiles among exposed controls; expressed in mg/m3 (oil mist, diesel and gasoline exhaust emissions, crystalline silica, wood dust and animal dust); ppm (formaldehyde, sulphur dioxide); μg/ m3 (benzo(a)pyrene) or in fibers/m3 (asbestos).
  3. c Percentages may not add up to 100 due to the exclusion of subjects classified as having ‘uncertain’ exposure.
  4. d Odds ratios stratified by sex, age (5-year categories) and center and adjusted for age as a continuous variable, the maximum education level attained in the household, the standard international occupational prestige scale, atopy and the respondent status.