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Table 3 Estimates from the population-averaged GEE model investigating associations with vitamin D level

From: Association of vitamin D status with socio-demographic factors in Calgary, Alberta: an ecological study using Census Canada data

Parameter Estimate Standard error P-value Overall p-value
Intercept 64.5883 2.4201 <.0001 <.0001
Age (years)     <.0001
  age_RCS_lin −0.2738 0.0422 <.0001  
  age_RCS_S1 0.0015 0.0001 <.0001  
  age_RCS_S2 −0.0030 0.0004 <.0001  
  age_RCS_S3 0.0008 0.0004 0.0823  
Median household income ($CDN 10000)     <.0001
  income_RCS_lin −0.4078 0.2350 0.0826  
  income_RCS_S1 0.0543 0.0263 0.0392  
  income_RCS_S2 −0.1270 0.0793 0.1092  
  income_RCS_S3 0.0824 0.0855 0.3352  
Percentage of immigrants     <.0001
  percentimmi__RCS_lin −7.6190 9.4844 0.4218  
  percentimmi__RCS_S1 −172.823 567.4589 0.7607  
  percentimmi__RCS_S2 −1122.79 1547.330 0.4681  
  percentimmi__RCS_S3 3152.879 1511.398 0.0370  
Percentage of aboriginal people     <.0001
  percentabor__RCS_lin −68.5534 15.3580 <.0001  
  percentabor__RCS_S1 13868.36 5311.648 0.0090  
Percentage of subjects with some post-secondary education     <.0001
  percentuniv_RCS_lin 13.6596 4.2690 0.0014  
  percentuniv_RCS_S1 237.8126 69.0070 0.0006  
  percentuniv_RCS_S2 −842.990 263.7487 0.0014  
  percentuniv_RCS_S3 1090.294 509.4453 0.0323  
Gender     <.0001
  Female 7.4674 0.1930 <.0001  
  Male 0.0000 0.0000 .  
Month of vitamin D testing     <.0001
  December −1.3870 0.5024 0.0058  
  November 0.1357 0.4583 0.7672  
  October −1.3138 0.4593 0.0042  
  September −0.1319 0.4590 0.7738  
  August 4.7383 0.4252 <.0001  
  July 3.7308 0.4142 <.0001  
  June 0.5034 0.3959 0.2035  
  May 3.5073 0.4330 <.0001  
  April 0.6403 0.4129 0.1209  
  March −3.6969 0.4045 <.0001  
  February 0.4483 0.4108 0.2751  
  January 0.0000 0.0000 .  
  1. Note: Age, median household income, percentage of immigrants, and percentage of subjects with some post-secondary education were coded using restricted cubic spline (RCS) functions with five knots located at the 5th, 25th, 50th, 75th, and 95th percentiles of their distribution, and percentage of aboriginal people was coded using the 5th, 50th and 95th percentiles of its distribution. The variables listed underneath each of the continuous variables are their corresponding spline variables (e.g., age_RCS_lin, age_RCS_S1, age_RCS_S2, and age_RCS_S3 are the 4 spline variables of age).