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Table 5 Spectacle coverage rate by sociodemographic variables as well as univariate and multivariate model of unmet need

From: Visual impairment and spectacle coverage rate in Baoshan district, China: population-based study

Characteristic   Total n Met need (n) Unmet need (n) Spectacle coverage (%) Univariate odds ratio (95% CI) of unmet need Multivariate odds ratio (95% CI) of unmet need
Age,y        
60-69   637 363 274 56.99 1.00(reference) 1.00(reference)
70-79   282 86 196 30.50 3.02***(2.24-4.07) 2.70***(1.91-3.82)
80~   153 24 129 15.69 7.12***(4.48-11.32) 5.82***(3.49-9.70)
Total   1072 473 599 44.12   
Gender        
Male   455 248 207 54.51 1.00(reference) 1.00(reference)
Female   617 225 392 36.47 2.09***(1.63-2.67) 2.04***(1.54-2.70)
Occupation        
Peasant   881 438 443 49.72 1.00(reference) 1.00(reference)
Non-peasant   191 35 156 18.32 4.41***(2.99-6.51) 2.82***(1.72-4.61)
Type of insurance        
No insurance   58 14 44 24.14 1.00(reference) 1.00(reference)
Urban insurance   541 235 306 43.44 0.41**(0.22-0.77) 1.67(0.79-3.56)
Others   473 224 249 47.36 0.35***(0.19-0.66) 1.29(0.61-2.73)
Level of education        
Illiteracy   152 24 128 15.79 1.00(reference) 1.00(reference)
Primary school   466 162 304 34.76 0.35***(0.22-0.57) 0.96(0.55-1.68)
Secondary school or higher   454 287 167 63.22 0.11***(0.07-0.18) 0.38***(0.21-0.67)
Refractive error        
Myopia   608 297 311 48.85 0.20***(0.12-0.36) 0.44*(0.23-0.83)
  Mild Myopia 265 90 175 33.96   
  Moderate Myopia 212 137 75 64.62   
  High Myopia 131 70 61 53.44   
Hyperopia   372 161 211 43.28 0.26***(0.14-0.46) 0.30***(0.16-0.57)
  Mild Hyperopia 224 109 115 48.66   
  Moderate Hyperopia 123 41 82 33.33   
  High Hyperopia 25 11 14 44.00   
Astigmatism   92 15 77 16.30 1.00(reference) 1.00(reference)
  Mild Astigmatism 27 4 23 14.81   
  High Astigmatism 65 11 54 16.92   
  1. CI=confidence interval.
  2. * Significant at P <0.05.
  3. ** Significant at P <0.01.
  4. *** Significant at P <0.001.