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Table 3 Multinomial regression examining the relationship between psychological distress and sociodemographic and empowerment characteristics; women in relationships (N = 2,849)

From: Poor mental health in Ghana: who is at risk?

  OR (95% CI)
  Well/Mild Moderate Severe
Age 1.00 1.00 (0.99, 1.01) 1.01 (0.99, 1.02)
Marital status    
  Never married 1.00 1.00 1.00
  Married 1.00 0.87 (0.47, 1.63) 0.50 (0.22, 1.17)
  Formerly married 1.00 1.24 (0.43, 3.59) 0.84 (0.26, 2.76)
Education    
  None 1.00 2.05 (1.06, 3.94)* 3.39 (1.17, 9.81)*
  Primary or less 1.00 1.54 (0.77, 3.09) 2.12 (0.71, 6.34)
  Middle/JSS 1.00 1.31 (0.71, 2.43) 1.20 (0.41, 3.50)
  Secondary and above 1.00 1.00 1.00
Residential location    
  Urban 1.00 1.21 (0.85, 1.72) 1.60 (1.06, 2.39)*
  Rural 1.00 1.00 1.00
Wealth index    
  First quintile 1.00 1.77 (1.01, 3.11)* 1.33 (0.62, 2.86)
  Second 1.00 2.13 (1.26, 3.60)** 1.59 (0.76, 3.31)
  Third 1.00 1.22 (0.68, 2.20) 1.33 (0.55, 3.23)
  Fourth 1.00 1.95 (1.14, 3.34)* 1.54 (0.74, 3.20)
  Fifth 1.00 1.00 1.00
Region    
  Western 1.00 1.54 (0.72, 3.28) 2.67 (0.66, 10.89)
  Central 1.00 0.46 (0.20, 1.06) 2.08 (0.52, 8.41)
  Gt. Accra 1.00 1.00 1.00
  Volta 1.00 1.31 (0.63, 2.73) 1.93 (0.46, 8.21)
  Eastern 1.00 1.41 (0.66, 3.00) 6.09 (1.60, 23.24)**
  Ashanti 1.00 0.45 (0.18, 1.12) 2.06 (0.49, 8.69)
  Brong Ahafo 1.00 1.06 (0.43, 2.64) 1.89 (0.38, 9.29)
  Northern 1.00 1.29 (0.58, 2.89) 2.78 (0.71, 10.87)
  Upper East 1.00 1.55 (0.65, 3.73) 2.62 (0.62, 11.06)
  Upper West 1.00 0.71 (0.28, 1.79) 0.75 (0.15, 3.67)
Self-rated health    
  Very healthy 1.00 1.00 1.00
  Somewhat healthy 1.00 1.54 (1.10, 2.16)* 2.57 (1.65, 4.00)**
  Unhealthy 1.00 2.38 (1.51, 3.73)** 2.10 (1.22, 3.62)**
Religion    
  Christian 1.00 1.00 1.00
  Muslim 1.00 0.82 (0.53, 1.26) 1.04 (0.56, 1.94)
  Traditional 1.00 1.16 (0.71, 1.90) 0.79 (0.40, 1.58)
  No religion 1.00 1.33 (0.74, 2.40) 1.29 (0.64, 2.62)
Important decisions should be made only by the men in the family 1.00 1.39 (0.99, 1.94) 1.48 (0.96, 2.28)
A wife does not have a right to express her opinion 1.00 1.79 (1.24, 2.58)** 1.68 (0.96, 2.93)
A wife should tolerate being beaten in order to keep the family together 1.00 1.63 (1.18, 2.25)** 2.61 (1.80, 3.78)**
Partner control (0–4) 1.00 1.55 (1.28, 1.87)** 1.82 (1.43, 2.32)**
Emotional abuse 1.00 1.20 (0.88, 1.63) 0.77 (0.49, 1.20)
Physical abuse 1.00 0.88 (0.45, 1.74) 2.22 (1.10, 4.49)*
  1. **p < 0.01; *p ≤ 0.05.