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Table 3 Multivariate multilevel analysis of PMTCT performance by site-, program- and contextual-level predictors: nevirapine coverage ratio (NCR)

From: Scaling up prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission programs in sub-Saharan African countries: a multilevel assessment of site-, program- and country-level determinants of performance

   β Coefficient p-value (95% CI)
Site characteristics    
  Activity (antenatal care)    
    < 30 / month 0 (ref) -  
    30 - 100 / month -7.6 0.05 (-15.1 ; -0.06)
    >100 / month -2.3 0.59 (-10.7 ; 6.1)
Country-level characteristics    
  Prevalence of HIV (% of population ages 15–49)    
    <Median (1.2-5.4) 0 (ref) -  
    >Median (6.4-23.4) 25.1 <10-4 (18.7 ; 31.6)
  % With knowledge about PMTCT    
    <Median (2.7-33.1) 0 (ref) -  
    >Median (33.3-66.2) 8.3 0.04 (0.53 ; 16.0)
  Health expenditure (% of GDP*) 3.9 <10-4 (2.0 ; 5.8)
  Rural population (% of total population) -0.74 <10-4 (-1.0 ; -0.46)
  1. *Gross Domestic Product.