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Table 2 Univariate multilevel analysis of PMTCT performance by site-, program- and contextual-level predictors: testing, treating and nevirapine coverage ratio (NCR)

From: Scaling up prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission programs in sub-Saharan African countries: a multilevel assessment of site-, program- and country-level determinants of performance

  Number of sites Tested women percentage p-value Treated women percentage p-value NCR p-value
Site characteristics        
Type of health facility        
  Primary care clinic 185 61.6 0.79 73.8 0.47 46.8 0.53
  General or University Hospital 84 61.2   62.4   37.4  
Activity (antenatal care)        
  < 30 / month 90 61.6 0.01 73.7 0.06 45.5 0.05
  30 - 100 / month 84 56.7   63.5   35.8  
  >100 / month 95 65.6   72.8   49.4  
Program characteristics        
Type of institution responsible        
  Public 113 62.5 0.81 66.4 0.28 42.8 0.47
  Private/NGO 156 60.8   72.9   44.6  
Number of sites        
  <Median (1–3) 16 56.4 0.27 61.9 0.92 35.3 0.38
  >Median (4–80) 253 61.8   70.7   44.4  
Country-level characteristics        
African region        
  South 67 81.2 0.23 82.2 0.05 67.9 0.03
  West 62 52.0   67.9   35.7  
  Centre 51 65.6   53.8   33.8  
  East 89 50.9   72.2   37.1  
Prevalence of HIV (% of 15-49y)        
  <Median (1.2-5.4) 110 57.8 0.32 61.1 0.002 34.4 0.01
  >Median (6.4-23.4) 159 64.0   76.5   50.4  
% Tested for HIV        
  <Median (2.8-6.3) 95 54.7 0.22 66.4 0.14 35.7 0.05
  >Median (7.1-19.6) 170 65.8   72.9   48.9  
% Have heard of AIDS        
  <Median (91.8-96.9) 101 59.1 0.79 70.6 0.98 42.8 0.92
  >Median (98.8-99.9) 165 63.6   70.8   45.2  
% Accepting (stigma)        
  <Median (5.1-29.3) 131 62.8 0.66 70.8 0.31 45.0 0.26
  >Median (30.2-48.5) 134 60.9   70.4   43.3  
% With knowledge about PMTCT        
  <Median (2.7-33.1) 121 53.6 0.09 67.2 0.14 34.8 0.01
  >Median (33.3-66.2) 144 68.8   73.5   52.0  
% With comprehensive knowledge about AIDS        
  <Median (18.7-30.5) 89 53.4 0.17 66.7 0.54 35.0 0.12
  >Median (36.5-55.3) 163 63.6   70.7   45.2  
Rural population (% of total population)        
  <Median (17.1-65.0) 122 67.3 0.26 76.2 0.44 53.4 0.18
  >Median (68.4-87.6) 147 57.3   66.8   37.2  
Healthcare expenditure (% of GDP*)        
  <Median (3.0-6.7) 171 50.9 <10 -4 70.5 0.92 36.4 0.10
  >Median (7.0-10.0) 98 80.0   69.7   56.9  
GDP per capita ($)        
  <Median (144.6-615.8) 141 57.1 0.58 66.7 0.80 36.9 0.75
  >Median (1295.3-13338.8)) 128 66.4   74.1   51.5  
  1. *Gross Domestic Product.