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Table 5 Endorsement of barriers to help-seeking

From: Increased cancer awareness among British adolescents after a school-based educational intervention: a controlled before-and-after study with 6-month follow-up

Barrier Yes % (n) Intervention (n=290) Control (n=132)
  T0 T1 Change Significance T0 T1 Change Significance
Emotional barriers         
Not confident to talk about symptoms 53.0 (151) 44.6 (127) -8.4 (-24) p=0.021 50.0 (65) 43.8 (57) -6.2 (-8) p=0.280
Worried about what the doctor might find 70.2 (200) 63.2 (180) -7.0 (-20) p=0.021 73.5 (97) 70.5 (93) -3.0 (-4) p=0.523
Too scared 56.8 (162) 51.9 (148) -4.9 (-14) p=0.165 49.6 (65) 43.5 (57) -6.1 (-8) p=0.229
Too embarrassed 56.8 (163) 55.7 (160) -1.1 (-3) p=0.818 51.5 (67) 52.3 (68) 0.8 (1) p=1.000
Practical barriers         
Other things to worry about 22.2 (63) 29.6 (84) 7.4 (21) p=0.010 12.4 (16) 17.1 (22) 4.7 (6) p=0.180
Too busy 24.9 (71) 27.7 (79) 2.8 (8) p=0.389 17.1 (22) 14.7 (19) -2.4 (-3) p=0.607
Difficult to arrange transport 16.4 (47) 12.2 (35) -4.2 (-12) p=0.111 14.7 (19) 13.2 (17) -1.5 (-2) p=0.839
Service barriers         
Difficult to make an appointment 23.1 (66) 24.1 (69) 1.0 (3) p=0.795 15.4 (20) 16.9 (22) 1.5 (2) p=0.832
Worried about wasting the doctor’s time 34.1 (98) 33.8 (97) -0.3 (-1) p=1.000 29.2 (38) 29.2 (38) 0 (0) p=1.000
Difficult to talk to doctor 35.0 (100) 31.5 (90) -3.5 (-10) p=0.282 34.6 (45) 31.5 (41) -3.1 (-4) p=0.618
  1. Note: McNemar’s chi-square test for 2x2 tables (i.e., Yes vs. No/Don’t know). Statistically significant differences at the p<0.05 level are emboldened.