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Table 4 Recognition of cancer warning signs

From: Increased cancer awareness among British adolescents after a school-based educational intervention: a controlled before-and-after study with 6-month follow-up

Cancer warning sign Yes % (n) Intervention (n=290) Control (n=132)
  T0 T1 Change Significance T0 T1 Change Significance
Unexplained pain 51.4 (147) 88.5 (253) 37.1 (106) p<0.001 37.4 (49) 48.1 (63) 10.7 (14) p=0.024
Unexplained weight loss 45.1 (129) 79.0 (226) 33.9 (97) p<0.001 32.8 (43) 42.7 (56) 9.9 (13) p=0.041
Sore that does not heal 28.2 (80) 57.0 (162) 28.8 (82) p<0.001 17.4 (23) 23.5 (31) 6.1 (8) p=0.169
Cough or hoarseness 39.0 (112) 66.6 (191) 27.6 (79) p<0.001 19.7 (26) 31.1 (41) 11.4 (15) p=0.024
Unexplained bleeding 52.8 (151) 78.7 (225) 25.9 (74) p<0.001 40.2 (53) 48.5 (64) 8.3 (11) p=0.117
Difficulty swallowing 38.9 (111) 60.0 (171) 21.1 (60) p<0.001 32.6 (43) 36.4 (48) 3.8 (5) p=0.511
Change in bowel/bladder habits 54.4 (155) 74.4 (212) 20.0 (57) p<0.001 56.8 (75) 50.8 (67) -6.0 (-8) p=0.256
Change in appearance of a mole 64.9 (185) 84.2 (240) 19.3 (55) p<0.001 49.2 (65) 46.2 (61) -3.0 (-4) p=0.585
Lump or swelling 93.4 (268) 94.1 (270) 0.7 (2) p=0.851 80.2 (105) 84.7 (111) 4.5 (6) p=0.210
  1. Note: McNemar’s chi-square test for 2x2 tables (i.e., Yes vs. No/Don’t know). Statistically significant differences at the p<0.05 level are emboldened.