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Table 3 Recall of cancer warning signs

From: Increased cancer awareness among British adolescents after a school-based educational intervention: a controlled before-and-after study with 6-month follow-up

Cancer warning sign Yes % (n) Intervention (n=290) Control (n=132)
  T0 T1 Change Significance T0 T1 Change Significance
Pain 13.1 (38) 54.1 (157) 41.0 (119) p<0.001 15.2 (20) 16.7 (22) 1.5 (2) p=0.832
Tiredness/Fatigue 10.0 (29) 38.6 (112) 28.6 (83) p<0.001 2.3 (3) 3.0 (4) 0.7 (1) p=1.000
Change in appearance of mole 14.8 (43) 35.5 (103) 20.7 (60) p<0.001 12.1 (16) 7.6 (10) -4.5 (-6) p=0.180
Weight loss 5.5 (16) 24.8 (72) 19.3 (56) p<0.001 8.3 (11) 5.3 (7) -3.0 (-4) p=0.388
Lump 66.9 (194) 82.4 (239) 15.5 (45) p<0.001 62.1 (82) 65.9 (87) 3.8 (5) p=0.424
Bleeding 10.0 (29) 24.5 (71) 14.5 (42) p<0.001 4.5 (6) 13.6 (18) 9.1 (12) p=0.008
Bowel/Bladder Habits 1.4 (4) 10.3 (30) 8.9 (26) p<0.001 2.3 (3) 5.3 (7) 3.0 (4) p=0.344
Cough 8.6 (25) 16.6 (48) 8.0 (23) p<0.001 9.8 (13) 16.7 (22) 6.9 (9) p=0.078
Headache/Migraine 11.7 (34) 19.3 (56) 7.6 (22) p=0.003 3.8 (5) 9.8 (13) 6.0 (8) p=0.039
Stomach ache 1.4 (4) 9.0 (26) 7.6 (22) p<0.001 0 (0) 0.8 (1) 0.8 (1)
Weight gain 0 (0) 7.6 (22) 7.6 (22) 1.5 (2) 1.5 (2) 0.0 (0) p=1.000
Sore throat 0.7 (2) 6.6 (19) 5.9 (17) p<0.001 0.8 (1) 3.8 (5) 3.0 (4) p=0.219
Bruising 1.4 (4) 6.6 (19) 5.2 (15) p=0.001 1.5 (2) 2.3 (3) 0.8 (1) p=1.000
Nausea/Sickness 9.7 (28) 14.1 (41) 4.4 (13) p=0.002 10.6 (14) 8.3 (11) -2.3 (-3) p=0.607
Spots/rashes 2.4 (7) 4.5 (13) 2.1 (6) p=0.210 3.8 (5) 6.8 (9) 3.0 (4) p=0.424
Difficulty swallowing 0 (0) 2.1 (6) 2.1 (6) 2.3 (3) 1.5 (2) -0.8 (-1) p=1.000
Dizziness 1.0 (3) 2.8 (8) 1.8 (5) p=0.180 3.0 (4) 3.0 (4) 0 (0) p=1.000
Sore that doesn't heal 1.4 (4) 3.1 (9) 1.7 (5) p=0.227 1.5 (2) 0.8 (1) -0.7 (-1) p=1.000
Loss of appetite 0 (0) 0.7 (2) 0.7 (2) 2.3 (3) 3.0 (4) 0.7 (1) p=1.000
Infection 1.0 (3) 1.0 (3) 0 (0) p=1.000 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0)
Cramps 1.0 (3) 0.7 (2) -0.3 (-1) p=1.000 0 (0) 1.5 (2) 1.5 (2)
Feeling weak 1.7 (5) 1.0 (3) -0.7 (-2) p=0.687 2.3 (3) 3.0 (4) 0.7 (1) p=1.000
Blurred vision 1.0 (3) 0.3 (1) -0.7 (-2) p=0.625 0.8 (1) 5.3 (7) 4.5 (6) p=0.031
Flu symptoms 1.7 (5) 0.7 (2) -1.0 (-3) p=0.250 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0)
Tumour/Growth 4.8 (14) 3.4 (10) -1.4 (-4) p=0.454 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0)
Generally unwell 5.5 (16) 3.4 (10) -2.1 (-6) p=0.286 9.8 (13) 8.3 (11) -1.5 (-2) p=0.804
Breathing problems 4.1 (12) 0.3 (1) -3.8 (-11) p=0.003 1.5 (2) 4.5 (6) 3.0 (4) p=0.219
Hair loss 12.4 (36) 7.2 (21) -5.2 (-15) p=0.024 18.9 (25) 29.5 (39) 10.6 (14) p=0.024
Don't know 23.8 (69) 11.4 (33) -12.4 (-36) p<0.001 28.8 (38) 18.9 (25) -9.9 (-13) p=0.011
  1. Notes:
  2. McNemar’s chi-square test for 2x2 tables (i.e., Yes vs. No). Statistically significant differences at the p<0.05 level are emboldened.
  3. McNemar’s chi-square test cannot be calculated.