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Table 1 Usual gait speed and fast gait speed groups, sub-divided into slower, intermediate and faster groups (n = 385)

From: Gait speed correlates in a multiracial population of community-dwelling older adults living in Brazil: a cross-sectional population-based study

    Usual gait speed    Fast gait speed  
Characteristics General Slower Intermediate Faster p Slower Intermediate Faster p
  (N=385) (N=75) (N=207) (N=103)   (N=58) (N=218) (N=109)  
Demographics          
Age, years 71.4 (5.7) 75.0 (7.1) 70.8 (5.0) 69.8 (4.7) <0.001 74.7 (6.6) 71.2 (5.4) 69.9 (4.8) <0.001
Female, n (%) 248 (64.4) 52 (69.3) 151 (72.9) 45 (43.7) <0.001 45 (77.6) 158 (72.5) 45 (41.3) <0.001
Illiterate, n (%) 111 (28.9) 29 (38.7) 61 (31.8) 21 (20.4) 0.028 22 (37.9) 69 (31.8) 20 (18.3) 0.011
Income level          
0.0–1.0 189 (51.5) 41 (56.9) 109 (55.3) 39 (39.8) 0.103 32 (59.3) 115 (55.6) 42 (39.6) 0.003
1.1–3.0 128 (34.9) 23 (31.9) 64 (32.5) 41 (41.8)   19 (35.2) 70 (33.8) 39 (36.8)  
≥ 3.1 50 (13.6) 8 (11.1) 24 (12.2) 18 (18.4)   3 (5.6) 22 (10.6) 25 (23.6)  
Race/ethnicity, n (%)          
White 184 (47.8) 37 (49.3) 105 (50.7) 42 (40.8) 0.531 28 (48.3) 106 (48.6) 50 (45.9) 0.499
Black 43 (11.2) 11 (14.7) 18 (8.7) 14 (13.6)   10 (17.2) 21 (9.6) 12 (11.0)  
Pardo or brown 143 (37.1) 24 (32.0) 76 (36.7) 43 (41.7)   17 (29.3) 85 (39.0) 41 (37.6)  
Mental health          
MMSE score, points 23.9 (3.5) 22.2 (3.7) 23.9 (3.3) 25.1 (3.3) <0.001 22.1 (3.7) 23.7 (3.3) 25.2 (3.1) <0.001
Depressive symptoms, n (%) 76 (19.7) 17 (22.7) 47 (22.7) 12 (11.7) 0.001 17 (29.3) 43 (19.7) 16 (14.7) 0.077
High concern of falling, n (%) 192 (49.9) 55 (73.3) 109 (52.7) 28 (27.2) <0.001 43 (74.1) 118 (54.1) 31 (28.4) <0.001
Physical health          
Heart disease, n (%) 77 (20) 19 (25.3) 42 (20.3) 16 (15.5) 0.269 40 (69.0) 49 (22.5) 16 (14.7) 0.249
Hypertension, n (%) 249 (64.7) 52 (69.3) 135 (65.2) 62 (60.2) 0.44 8 (13.8) 150 (68.8) 59 (54.1) 0.025
Stroke, n (%) 28 (7.3) 11 (14.7) 13 (6.3) 4 (3.9) 0.017 22 (37.9) 17 (7.8) 3 (2.8) 0.029
Diabetes, n (%) 110 (28.6) 33 (44.0) 56 (27.1) 21 (20.4) 0.002 21 (36.2) 66 (30.3) 22 (20.2) 0.038
Arthritis, n (%) 89 (23.1) 27 (36.0) 48 (23.2) 14 (13.6) 0.002 4 (6.9) 55 (25.2) 13 (11.9) 0.001
Lung disease, n (%) 37 (9.6) 9 (12.0) 18 (8.7) 10 (9.7) 0.714 23 (39.7) 23 (10.6) 10 (9.2) 0.685
Urinary incontinence, n (%) 72 (18.8) 29 (38.7) 34 (16.4) 9 (8.8) <0.001 33 (56.9) 37 (17) 12 (11) <0.001
“Very good” and “Good” self rated health, n (%) 203 (52.7) 33 (44.0) 107 (51.7) 63 (61.2) 0.15 24 (41.4) 116 (53.2) 63 (57.8) 0.086
Two or more falls, n (%) 59 (15.3) 17 (22.7) 35 (16.9) 7 (6.8) 0.01 30 (51.7) 34 (15.6) 9 (8.3) 0.004
Single fall, n (%) 153 (39.7) 33 (44.0) 85 (41.1) 35 (34) 0.342 2.95 (1.51) 86 (39.4) 37 (33.9) 0.081
Three or more diseases, n (%) 140 (36.6) 43 (58.1) 75 (36.4) 22 (21.6) <0.001 33 (56.9) 84 (38.9) 23 (21.3) <0.001
Polypharmacy 133 (34.5) 39 (52.0) 70 (33.8) 24 (23.3) <0.001 30 (51.7) 80 (36.7) 23 (21.1) <0.001
Fatigue, n (%) 43 (11.2) 12 (16.0) 27 (13.0) 4 (3.9) 0.018 10 (17.2) 28 (12.8) 5 (4.6) 0.023
Physical functioning          
  77 (20) 31 (41.3) 37 (17.9) 9 (8.7) <0.001 25 (43.1) 38 (17.4) 14 (12.8) <0.001
Low PAL          
Impaired ADL, n (%) 25 (6.6) 11 (15.1) 11 (5.3) 3 (3.0) 0.004 10 (17.9) 12 (5.5) 3 92.8) 0.001
  1. Abbreviations: MMSE: Mini-Mental Score Examination; PAL: Physical Activity Level; ADL: Activities of Daily Living.
  2. Income level is presented as monthly income measured in multiples of the minimum wage (US$ 290 in 2009).
  3. Continuous and discrete variables were compared using one-way ANOVA.
  4. Categorical variables were compared using the Chi-squared test.
  5. p<0.05.