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Table 1 Risk factors for vitamin A deficiency in rural Guinea-Bissau

From: Determinants of vitamin a deficiency in children between 6 months and 2 years of age in Guinea-Bissau

Group/Variable n (%) VAD Prevalence (%) Simple modelaPR for VAD (95% CI) Simple model pc< Large modelbPR for VAD (95% CI) Large model pc<
VAD       
 Yes 724 (66) - - - - -
 No 378 (34) - -   -  
Obligatory       
Sex       
 Male 555 (50) 67 reference 0.39 reference 0.09
 Female 547 (50) 64 0.96 (0.89-1.05)   0.93 (0.86-1.01)  
Age       
 Continuous (months) 1102 (100) - 0.99 (0.98-1.00) 0.05 1.00 (0.99-1.01) 0.83
CRP       
 ≤ 5 mg/L 756 (69) 60 reference 0.0001 reference 0.0001
 > 5 mg/L 346 (31) 78 1.29 (1.19-1.40)   1.27 (1.17-1.37)  
Child factors       
Weight for aged,e       
 Continuous 1094 (99) - 0.98 (0.95-1.02) 0.42 1.05 (0.99-1.11) 0.13
Arm circumference for aged,e       
 Continuous 1101 (100) - 0.95 (0.91-0.99) 0.02 0.95 (0.89-1.01) 0.09
Length for aged,e       
 < −2 267 (24) 62 1.01 (0.89-1.16)   - -
 ≥ −2, < −1 325 (30) 67 0.93 (0.81-1.06)   - -
 ≥ −1, < 0 345 (31) 67 0.99 (0.87-1.13)   - -
 ≥ 0 161 (15) 50 reference 0.50 - -
Weight for lengthd,e       
 Continuous 1090 (99) - 0.99 (0.95-1.02) 0.49 - -
Twinning status       
 Singletons 1066 (97) 65 reference 0.001 reference 0.01
 Twins 36 (3) 86 1.31 (1.15-1.49)   1.30 (1.11-1.52)  
Breast feedingd       
 Yes 1080 (98) 66 reference 0.51 - -
 Stopped 17 (2) 59 0.88 (0.61-1.27)   -  
Took medicine on inclusion day       
 No 975 (88) 65 reference 0.05f - -
 Yes 63 (6) 71 1.03 (0.88-1.22)   -  
 No information 64 (6) 77 1.19 (1.03-1.37)   -  
Cough at the day of inclusiond       
 No 816 (74) 64 reference 0.03 reference 0.03
 Yes 283 (26) 72 1.11 (1.01-1.21)   1.10 (1.01-1.21)  
Fever at the day of inclusiond       
 No 758 (69) 64 reference 0.42 - -
 Yes 341 (31) 69 1.04 (0.95-1.13)   -  
Diarrhea at the day of inclusiond       
 No 920 (83) 65 reference 0.36 - -
 Yes 178 (16) 69 1.05 (0.94-1.17)   -  
Maternal factors       
Maternal ethnicityd       
 Balanta 282 (26) 62 reference 0.0001 reference 0.001
 Fula 215 (20) 81 1.31 (1.18-1.46)   1.21 (1.03-1.42)  
 Mandinga 123 (11) 61 0.98 (0.83-1.16)   0.88 (0.75-1.03)  
 Pepel 235 (21) 61 0.95 (0.83-1.08)   1.38 (1.05-1.81)  
 Otherg 234 (21) 62 1.00 (0.87-1.14)   0.95 (0.82-1.09)  
Maternal educational level (years of school)d       
 None 797 (72) 66 reference 0.50 - -
 1-4 197 (18) 61 0.93 (0.83-1.05)   -  
 > 4 101 (9) 67 1.01 (0.87-1.16)   -  
Maternal age at child inclusion dated       
 ≥ 14, ≤ 20 202 (18) 64 0.98 (0.87-1.10)   -  
 > 20, ≤ 30 575 (52) 65 reference 0.74 - -
 > 30, ≤ 40 260 (24) 68 1.04 (0.94-1.15)   -  
 > 40, ≤ 55 43 (4) 61 0.96 (0.75-1.22)   -  
Season       
Season       
 Dry 649 (59) 53 reference 0.0001 reference 0.0001
 Rainy 453 (49) 84 1.56 (1.44-1.70)   1.64 (1.49-1.81)  
Geography       
Region       
 Bafata 121 (11) 55 1.02 (0.84-1.24)   1.41 (1.03-1.94)  
 Biombo 287 (26) 56 reference 0.0001 reference 0.0001
 Bijagós/Bolama 63 (6) 76 1.41 (1.19-1.66)   2.46 (1.79-3.39)  
 Cacheu 53 (5) 43 0.81 (0.59-1.12)   1.47 (0.98-2.19)  
 Gabu 148 (13) 82 1.47 (1.30-1.67)   2.10 (1.53-2.87)  
 Oio 89 (8) 91 1.62 (1.44-1.83)   1.96 (1.49-2.58)  
 Quinara 133 (12) 68 1.22 (1.04-1.42)   1.98 (1.48-2.66)  
 Sao Domingos 91 (8) 65 1.15 (0.96-1.38)   1.87 (1.38-2.53)  
 Tombali 117 (11) 63 1.13 (0.96-1.33)   2.07 (1.51-2.83)  
Village distance to vaccination facility (km)       
 ≥ 0, < 0.5 440 (40) 69 reference 0.10 reference 0.19
 ≥ 0.5, < 2 167 (15) 60 0.88 (0.77-1.01)   1.09 (0.94-1.26)  
 ≥ 2, < 5 200 (18) 61 0.88 (0.78-1.00)   1.07 (0.91-1.26)  
 ≥ 5 295 (27) 67 0.98 (0.89-1.09)   1.17 (1.01-1.36)  
Distance to sea (km)       
 ≥ 0, < 5 25 9 (24) 63 reference 0.001 - -
 ≥ 5, < 15 290 (26) 60 0.96 (0.85-1.10)   -  
 ≥ 15, < 50 328 (30) 65 1.05 (0.93-1.19)   -  
 ≥ 50, < 149 225 (20) 77 1.22 (1.09-1.37)   -  
Distance to hospital (km)       
 ≥ 0, < 10 206 (19) 65 reference 0.03 reference 0.04
 ≥ 10, < 20 363 (33) 72 1.09 (0.97-1.22)   1.06 (0.93-1.20)  
 ≥ 20, < 30 319 (29) 61 0.94 (0.82-1.07)   0.93 (0.81-1.07)  
 ≥ 30, < 70 214 (19) 63 0.96 (0.83-1.11)   0.86 (0.72-1.02)  
Use of health services       
Most recent vaccination typed,h       
 Inactivated 667 (61) 67 reference 0.93 reference 0.06
 Live 141 (13) 64 0.96 (0.84-1.09)   0.84 (0.74-0.96)  
 Mixed 156 (14) 66 1.00 (0.88-1.13)   1.01 (0.90-1.13)  
 No vaccination 119 (11) 47 0.99 (0.86-1.14)   1.01 (0.88-1.17)  
VAS received within 6 monthsd       
 Received 589 (53) 63 reference 0.12 - -
 Not received 500 (45) 68 1.07 (0.98-1.17)   -  
Birth facility       
 Home 629 (57) 65 reference 0.01 reference 0.02
 Health unit/center 80 (7) 58 0.89 (0.73-1.08)   0.98 (0.82-1.17)  
 Hospital 126 (11) 77 1.20 (1.07-1.34)   1.16 (1.03-1.31)  
 No information 267 (24) 64 1.00 (0.90-1.11)   1.13 (1.03-1.25)  
Child use of bed netd       
 Year around 773 (70) 67 reference 0.03 reference 0.03
 Rainy season 311 (28) 63 0.94 (0.85-1.04)   0.97 (0.87-1.09)  
 None 8 (1) 88 1.38 (1.06-1.80)   1.48 (1.11-1.97)  
  1. aPoisson regression adjusted for CRP > 5 mg/L, bPoisson regression adjusted for CRP > 5 mg/L, sex, age, weight for age, arm circumference for age, twinning status, cough on inclusion day, maternal major ethnic group, season, region, village distance to vaccination facility, distance to hospital, most recent vaccination type, birth facility, and child use of bed net. cWald test for overall equality of categories within variable. dNumbers do not add up to 1102 because records with missing information were discarded if they represent < 2%, ez-score in standard deviations from 1. fp=0.68 when children missing information was omitted, gGrouped from minor ethnicities. hVaccination status determined by the most recent vaccination type being either live (BCG, OPV, MV, and/or yellow fever vaccine), inactivated (DTP or Pentavalent vaccine) or Mixed (both a live and an inactivated vaccine). OPV is supposed to be given with DTP vaccines, but the last vaccine type was not considered as mixed if OPV was given with a DTP or Pentavalent vaccine as done in previous studies.