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Table 1 Sample characteristics of cross-sectional sample at baseline and never smokers at follow-up, Vallejo, CA

From: Racial differences in cigarette brand recognition and impact on youth smoking

Characteristics at baseline Cross-sectional analysis (n = 2,589) Longitudinal analysis (n = 1,179)
  Variable Sample Variable Sample
  n % or M (SD) n % or M (SD)
Socio-demographics
  Gender (Male) 2568 44.7% 1170 40.5%
   Race 2589   1179  
   African American   31.4%   31.8%
   Asian/Pacific Islander   30.5%   37.7%
   White   18.8%   23.1%
   Other   19.3%   7.5%
  Ethnicity (Hispanic) 2589 33.8% 1179 36.6%
  Grade level 2578   1177  
   6   18.5%   19.3%
   7   36.7%   38.3%
   8   31.5%   27.4%
   9   13.4%   15.0%
  Baseline survey year 2589   1179  
   2006   63.7%   58.1%
   2007   36.3%   41.9%
Retail tobacco marketing exposure
  Shopping frequency (visits per week) 2584 3.96 (4.03) 1177 3.27 (3.64)
  Brand recognition     
   Camel (menthol) 2559 52.2% 1166 48.6%
   Marlboro 2559 36.1% 1168 34.4%
   Newport (menthol) 2572 32.0% 1174 25.9%
Other risk factors for smoking
  Grade-point average 2529 2.52 (1.11) 1153 2.73 (1.05)
  Unsupervised days after school 2573 2.47 (2.04) 1177 2.29 (2.05)
  Risk-taking propensity 2577 2.41 (1.04) 1174 2.18 (0.92)
  At least 1 smoker at home 2571 42.7% 1176 37.7%
  At least 1 friend smokes 2577 34.4% 1178 25.6%
  Ever smoked, at least a puff 2568 25.8% Excluded from analysis
  1. Note: Shopping frequency is sum of visits per week for three store types (convenience, small market, and liquor).