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Table 1 Summary of size and association between the intervention and potential mediator and physical activity outcomes

From: A systematic review of intervention effects on potential mediators of children’s physical activity

   Studies with positive significant effect on potential mediator (and rating of effect size) Physical activity outcomes* Studies with no significant effect on Potential mediator (and rating of effect size) Physical activity outcomes*
Cognitive/psychological  
Self-efficacy towards PA 14 T [45, 47, 52] + [35, 43, 45, 47, 52, 62] T [49, 53, 59] + [49, 53, 59]
  S [43, 63] (gp 1&2)   S [55]  
  L [62] 0 [63] (gp 1&2) M [57] 0 [36, 37, 55, 57]
  NC [35]   NC [36, 37]  
Self-perception/self-esteem 5 L [63] (gp.1) + [63] (gp.1) T [67] + [57, 63] (gp 2), [67]
    S [55, 57]  
    M [56] 0 [55, 56]
    L [63] (gp 2)  
Knowledge 9 S [42, 43] + [43, 59, 71] S [66] + [66]
  M [59, 68, 71]   NC [37]  
  NC [33, 34] 0 [33, 34, 42, 68]   0 [37]
Enjoyment of PA 6 L [49, 60] + [49, 60] T [48] (boys) + [48] (boys), [48] (girls),
    S [48] (girls), [56, 67] [53, 67]
    M [53]  
     0 [56]
Intention to be physically active 5 T [65] (boys) + [46] S [67] + [36, 67]
  M [46]   M [65] (girls)  
   0 [65] (boys) NC [36, 38] 0 [38, 65] (girls)
Outcome expectancies 5 S [47] + [36, 47] T [49] + [49, 57]
  NC [36]   S [55, 57] 0 [55]
Preference for PA 4 S [57] + [46, 57] S [55] 0 [54, 55]
  L [46]   L [54]  
Attitude towards PA 2 M [44] + [44] T [66] 0 [66]
Perception of safety 2 - - T [49, 50] + [49]
     0 [50]
PA beliefs 2 S [65] (boys and girls) 0 [65] (boys and girls) T [47] + [47]
Habit 1 NC [36] + [36] -  
Attraction to PA 1 - - M [46] + [46]
Exercise behavioural capability 1 NC [35] 0 [35] - -
Awareness of PA levels 1 - - NC [36] + [36]
Perceived behavioural control 1 NC [38] 0 [38] - -
Social Environmental  
Social support for PA 6 T [47, 65] (boys) + [47] T [49] + [36, 45, 49, 53]
    S [53]  
   0 [65] (boys) M [65] (girls) 0 [65] (girls)
    L [45]  
    NC [36]  
Family support for PA 4 L [58] (mother) 0 [58] (mother) T [58] (father) + [47, 57, 67]
    S [47, 57, 67] 0 [58] (father)
Peer support for PA 1 - - S [47] + [47]
Physical environmental 0 0   0  
  1. KEY:
  2. Effect on PA: + = significant effect on physical activity (PA) outcome, 0= no significant effect on PA outcome, +/0= mixed result.
  3. Effect size: T= trivial (≤0.2), S= small (>0.2-0.5), M= moderate (>0.5-0.8), L= large (>0.8), NC=not able to be calculated.