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Table 1 Characteristics of participants stratified by disability status

From: Distribution and determinants of functioning and disability in aged adults - results from the German KORA-Age study

   n Total No disability Any disability p-value
Age at examination   4117 73.56 (6.09) 71.65 (5.06) 75.92 (6.42) < 0.0001
Sex Female 4117 2109 (51.2%) 974 (42.8%) 1135 (61.7%) < 0.0001
Marital Status unmarried 4062 148 (3.6%) 69 (3.1%) 79 (4.4%) < 0.0001
  divorced   229 (5.6%) 121 (5.4%) 108 (6%)  
  widowed   954 (23.5%) 387 (17.2%) 567 (31.3%)  
  married   2731 (67.2%) 1676 (74.4%) 1055 (58.3%)  
Education (per year)   4116 10.84 (2.45) 11.2 (2.59) 10.39 (2.18) < 0.0001
Per Capita Income in €1000   3830 1.11 (0.53) 1.16 (0.56) 1.04 (0.49) < 0.0001
Smoking never 4113 2242 (54.5%) 1197 (52.6%) 1045 (56.9%) 0.0047
  former   1611 (39.2%) 919 (40.4%) 692 (37.7%)  
  occasional   27 (0.7%) 12 (0.5%) 15 (0.8%)  
  regular   233 (5.7%) 148 (6.5%) 85 (4.6%)  
Alcohol abstinence Yes 4088 649 (15.9%) 247 (10.9%) 402 (22.1%) < 0.0001
Malnutrition score   4117 38.27 (5.47) 39.5 (4.71) 36.74 (5.93) < 0.0001
Physical activity Active 4117 2290 (55.6%) 1542 (67.7%) 748 (40.7%) < 0.0001
BMI   4081 27.41 (4.18) 26.97 (3.69) 27.96 (4.67) < 0.0001
Diseases       
 Pulmonal disease Yes 4117 433 (10.5%) 161 (7.1%) 272 (14.8%) < 0.0001
 Joint disease Yes 4117 676 (16.4%) 239 (10.5%) 437 (23.8%) < 0.0001
 Gastrointestinal disease Yes 4117 361 (8.8%) 154 (6.8%) 207 (11.2%) < 0.0001
 Heart disease Yes 4117 1087 (26.4%) 468 (20.6%) 619 (33.6%) < 0.0001
 Stroke Yes 4112 283 (6.9%) 84 (3.7%) 199 (10.8%) < 0.0001
 Kidney disease Yes 4117 168 (4.1%) 65 (2.9%) 103 (5.6%) < 0.0001
 Liver disease Yes 4117 95 (2.3%) 43 (1.9%) 52 (2.8%) 0.0591
 Cancer Yes 4105 178 (4.3%) 89 (3.9%) 89 (4.9%) 0.1625
 Diabetes Yes 4110 707 (17.2%) 301 (13.2%) 406 (22.1%) < 0.0001
 Fracture in last 5 years Yes 4088 420 (10.3%) 163 (7.2%) 257 (14.1%) < 0.0001
 Neurologic Disease Yes 4117 142 (3.4%) 39 (1.7%) 103 (5.6%) < 0.0001
 Eye Disease Yes 4116 1585 (38.5%) 703 (30.9%) 882 (48%) < 0.0001
  1. No disability (HAQ-DI = 0) vs. Any disability (HAQ-DI > 0): For continuous variables we report mean and standard deviation in parentheses. For categorical variables we report absolute frequencies and column-wise relative frequencies. We used Wilcoxon rank-sum test to test for difference in continuous variables and Pearson's chi-squared test for categorical variables.