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Table 1 General characteristics of the sample and smoking behavior by age and gender *

From: Compliance and enforcement of a partial smoking ban in Lisbon taxis: an exploratory cross-sectional study

Gender n %       
Male 249 99.6       
Female 1 0.4       
Nationality         
Portuguese 246 98.4       
Non-Portuguese 4 1.6       
Work-shift         
Day 115 46.0       
Night 68 27.2       
Both 67 26.8       
Education**         
4–6 135 54.0       
7–9 65 26.0       
10–11 26 10.4       
12 23 9.2       
Higher Education 1 0.4       
Taxi sharing with colleague         
Yes 178 71.2       
No 72 28.8       
Total 250 100       
Age-Group Smokers   Ex-smokers   Never-smokers   Total  
  n % n % n % n %
25–44 30 60.0 9 18.0 11 22.0 50 100
45–54 42 51.2 23 28.0 17 20.7 82 100
55–64 30 35.3 36 42.4 19 22.4 85 100
65–76 7 21.9 14 43.8 11 34.4 32 100
Total 109 43.8 82 32.9 58 23.3 249 100
Females         
45–54 0 0.0 0 0.0 1 100.0 1 100
Total 109 43.6 82 32.8 59 23.6 250 100
  1. * p = 0.005. ** Education in schooling years. In Portugal, since 1986, compulsory education is 9 years. Before 1986 it was 4–6 years.