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Table 1 Characteristics of total study population and by smoking status, Israel human biomonitoring study, 2011

From: Exposure to tobacco smoke based on urinary cotinine levels among Israeli smoking and nonsmoking adults: a cross-sectional analysis of the first Israeli human biomonitoring study

  Total study populationa Non-smokersb Smokers p-value*
(N = 248) (N = 148) (N = 91)
Characteristic   N % of total N % of total N % of total
Age (years) 20-44 164 66.1 90 60.8 68 74.7 0.027
45-74 84 33.9 58 39.2 23 25.3  
Sex Males 127 51.2 62 41.9 58 63.7 0.001
Females 121 48.8 86 58.1 33 36.3
Ethnicity Jewish 184 74.2 101 69.7 75 83.3 0.019
Arab 64 25.8 44 30.3 15 16.7
Urbanicity Urban 218 87.9 137 92.6 75 82.4 0.016
Rural 30 12.1 11 7.4 16 17.6  
Country of birth Israel 214 90.7 129 90.2 77 90.6 0.925
Other 22 9.3 14 9.8 8 9.4  
Education Lower education 189 76.2 111 77.1 72 79.1 0.714
Higher education 55 22.5 33 22.9 19 20.9  
  1. *For difference in characteristics between smokers and nonsmokers, significance determined using Chi-Square or Fisher’s Exact test.
  2. aData were missing for Country of Birth (12 participants) and Education (4 participants). 4 participants were not Jewish or Arabs and were excluded from ethnicity analysis.
  3. bThe smoking status could not be verified for 4 participants in the study -who were excluded from further analysis. 5 participants were excluded from the analysis due to discrepancy between self-reported smoking status as “non-smokers” and creatinine-adjusted levels of cotinine > 150 μg/g.