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Table 2 Neonatal mortality rate for the 10-year period preceding the survey, by child sex, geographical location and socio-economic characteristics*

From: Neonatal health in Nepal: analysis of absolute and relative inequalities and impact of current efforts to reduce neonatal mortality

  Neonatal mortality rate Annual rate of reduction
NFHS 1996 NDHS 2001 NDHS 2006 NDHS 2011 (1996–2011)
Child sex      
  Male 65.1 51.8 38.6 36.9 3.8
  Female 49.6 42.6 36.8 33.1 2.7
  Rate difference 15.5 9.2 1.8 3.8 na
  Rate ratio 1.3 1.2 1.0 1.1 na
Residence      
  Urban 43.2 35.9 24.6 25.3 3.6
  Rural 58.5 48.1 39.6 36.2 3.2
  Rate difference 15.3 12.2 15.0 10.9 na
  Rate ratio 1.4 1.3 1.6 1.4 na
Ecological region      
  Mountain 70.8 63.7 58.9 45.6 2.9
  Hill 50.3 41.9 28.6 32.9 2.8
  Terai 61.7 49 41.4 35.1 3.8
  Rate difference 20.5 21.8 30.3 12.7 na
  Rate ratio 1.4 1.5 2.1 1.4 na
Development region      
  Eastern 56.7 50.1 32.5 29.3 4.4
  Central 55.5 47.6 34.8 36.7 2.8
  Western 52.0 38.9 34.5 37.0 2.3
  Mid-western 63.0 40.3 55.9 33.6 4.2
  Far-western 67.0 63.8 39.7 40.9 3.3
  Rate difference 15.0 24.9 23.4 11.6 na
  Rate ratio 1.3 1.6 1.7 1.4 na
Maternal education      
  No education 59.5 51.1 43.3 40.3 2.6
  Primary 51.6 41.1 34.1 33.6 2.9
  Secondary or higher 41.6 24.3 20.3 26.2 3.1
  Rate difference 17.9 26.8 23.0 14.1 na
  Rate ratio 1.4 2.1 2.1 1.5 na
Wealth status      
  Poorest 56.4 48.5 42.7 35.6 3.1
  Poorer 63.4 56.0 37.6 40.0 3.1
  Middle 65.8 46.9 46.9 39.2 3.5
  Richer 53.3 47.2 30.4 36.9 2.5
  Richest 47.0 32.1 26.3 18.6 6.2
  Rate difference 18.8 23.9 20.6 21.4 na
  Rate ratio 1.4 1.7 1.8 2.2 na
Caste and ethnicity      
  Brahmin, Chhetri, Newar 52.6 43.9 33.1 31.0 3.5
  Dalits 58.1 51.6 43.9 36.4 3.1
  Janajati 51.7 47.9 34.0 34.6 2.7
  Other 72.2 49.2 44.5 42.6 3.5
  Rate difference 20.5 7.7 11.4 11.6 na
  Rate ratio 1.4 1.2 1.3 1.4 na
National 57.5 47.2 37.7 35.1 3.3
  1. *In each survey, the groups with the highest and lowest neonatal mortality were used to calculate rate differences and rate ratios. Please note some fluctuation between years in terms of the groups performing best or worst.