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Table 4 Men and women exposed to various traumatic episodes during life time, in 1994 and in the past 3 years, presented by sex with p-values for sex difference in lifetime estimates

From: Traumatic episodes experienced during the genocide period in Rwanda influence life circumstances in young men and women 17 years later

Traumatic events Men life time Women life time p-values difference lifetime Men 1994 + -1 year Women 1994 + -1 year Men past 3 years Women past 3 years
  N % N %   N % N % N % N %
1. Imprisoned, kidnapped, held captive 69 15.7 25 5.2 < 0.001 3 0.7 5 1.0 21 4.8 6 1.3
2. Been a refugee, forced to flee from home to escape danger/persecution 96 21.8 132 27.7 0.055 56 12.7 64 13.4 4 0.9 5 1.0
3. Experienced forced separation from family members 19 4.3 35 7.3 0.122 6 1.4 12 2.5 1 0.2 2 0.4
4. Experienced a life-threatening injury 80 18.2 53 11.1 0.001 13 3.0 16 3.4 14 3.2* 5 1.0*
5. Experienced a murder or unnatural death of a family member or a friend 99 22.5 124 26.0 0.248 37 8.4 47 9.9 10 2.3 9 1.9
6. Robbed, mugged, threatened with a weapon 75 17.0 82 17.2 0.930 10 2.3 21 4.4 14 3.2 16 3.4
7. Experienced imprisonment of close family member 206 46.8 248 52.0 0.129 39 8.9 35 7.3 26 5.9 29 6.1
8. Witnessed a traumatic event to a loved one 136 30.9 170 35.6 0.093 17 3.9 24 5.0 29 6.6 30 6.3
9. Ever been raped by a stranger 5 1.1 17 3.6 0.011 1 0.2 1 0.2 0 0 1 0.2
10. Ever felt forced to have sex in exchange of money or other benefits? 6 1.4 25 5.2 0.001 0 0.0 1 0.2 3 0.7 2 0.4
11. Witnessed repeated violence between family members 25 5.7 49 10.3 0.011 7 1.6 6 1.3 4 0.9 7 1.5
12. Witnessed physical/sexual violence against a family member by someone outside of the family 18 4.1 36 7.5 0.034 3 0.7 6 1.3 3 0.7 8 1.7
13. Witnessed someone being badly injured or killed 43 9.8 88 18.4 < 0.001 14 3.2** 36 7.5** 5 1.1 5 1.0
14. Witnessed atrocities, e.g. mass killings, mutilated bodies 88 20.0 73 15.3 0.083 62 14.1** 38 8.0** 1 0.2 4 0.8
15. Been in a combat situation 56 12.7 58 12.2 0.765 16 3.6 16 3.4 10 2.3 10 2.1
16. Any other life threatening or disturbing event 74 16.8 83 17.4 0.860 29 6.6 29 6.1 12 2.7 8 1.7
Summary measure of all traumatic events 323 73.4 399 83.6 0.132 165 37.5 169 35.4 110 25.0 110 23.1
  1. *P < 0.05; **p < 0.005.
  2. N = 917, men 440; women 477.