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Table 7 Descriptive characteristics of the studies with an expenditure approach (n = 8)

From: Understanding the role of welfare state characteristics for health and inequalities – an analytical review

Descriptive measure n (%) Author (health inequality perspective = *)
Year of publication   
2005 --- ---
2006 --- ---
2007 2 (25%) Olsen & Dahl, Wu & Chiang
2008 --- ---
2009 --- ---
2010 2 (25%) Kangas, Stuckler et al.
2011 1 (13%) Bradley
2012 3 (38%) Dahl & van der Wel*, Gesthuizen et al.* Vavken et al.
2013 --- ---
Articles using health inequality approach 2 (25%)  
Health inequality measure 2 (100%) Dahl & van der Wel, Gesthuizen et al.
Education   
Type of expenditure   
Social spending 4 (50%) Bradley et al., Dahl & van der Wel*, Kangas, Stuckler et al.
Health spending 5 (63%) Bradley et al., Gesthuizen et al.*, Olsen & Dahl, Vavken et al., Wu & Chiang
Health outcomes   
Self-rated health 3 (38%) Dahl & van der Wel*, Gesthuizen et al.*, Olsen & Dahl
Infant mortality 2 (25%) Bradley et al., Wu & Chiang
Life expectancy at birth 2 (25%) Bradley et al., Kangas
Mortality rate 2 (25%) Stuckler et al., Vavken et al.
Potential years of life lost 2 (25%) Bradley et al., Vavken et al.
Child mortality (under 5 mortality rate) 1 (25%) Wu &Chiang
Low birth weight 1 (13%) Bradley et al.
Maternal mortality 1 (13%) Bradley et al.
Change in life expectancy at birth 1 (13%) Kangas
Health outcome   
Mortality measure   11
Morbidity measure   4
  1. Many articles examined multiple outcomes and hence the number of studies using the different health outcomes (15) is greater than the number of studies.
  2. Mortality measures include: infant mortality, life expectancy at birth, mortality rate, potential years of life lost, child mortality, maternal mortality, change in life expectancy at birth.
  3. Morbidity measures include: self-rated health, low birth weight.
  4. * = Studies with an inequalities perspective.