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Table 6 Descriptive characteristics of the studies with an institutional approach (n = 14)

From: Understanding the role of welfare state characteristics for health and inequalities – an analytical review

Descriptive measure n (%) Author (health inequality perspective = *)
Year of publication   
2005 1 (7%) Tanaka*
2006 2 (14%) Borrell*, Nordenmark
2007 3 (21%) Fritzell*, James*, Korda*
2008 1 (7%) Lundberg et al.
2009 --- ---
2010 6 (43%) Burstrom et al.*, Esser & Palme, Ferrarini & Norström, Ferrarini & Sjoberg, Kangas, Norstrom & Palme
2011 1 (7%) Engster & Olofsdotter Stensota
2012 --- ---
2013 --- ---
Articles using health inequality approach 6 (43%)  
Health inequality measure   
Type of mother (lone vs. coupled) 2 (33%) Fritzell et al.*, Burstrom et al.*
Socioeconomic position/status 1 (17%) Korda et al.*
Income 1 (17%) James et al.*
Education 1 (17%) Borrell et al.*
Type of benefit/policy   
Family benefits 6 (43%) Burstrom et al.*, Engster & Olofsdotter Stensota, Ferrarini & Norstrom, Ferrarini & Sjoberg, Lundberg et al., Tanaka
Pension benefits 4 (29%) Esser & Palme, Kangas, Lundberg et al., Norstrom & Palme
Economic assistance and unemployment benefits 3 (21%) Ferrarini & Sjoberg, Fritzell et al.*, Nordenmark et al.
Access to health care 3 (21%) Borrell et al.*, James et al.*, Korda et al.*
Health outcomes   
Infant mortality 4 (29%) Ferrarini & Norstrom, Ferrarini & Sjoberg, Lundberg et al., Tanaka
Self-rated health 4 (29%) Burstrom et al.*, Esser & Palme, Ferrarini & Sjoberg, Fritzell et al.*
Mortality rate 3 (21%) Fritzell et al.*, James et al.*, Korda et al.*
Limiting longstanding illness/morbidity/disability 2 (14%) Burstrom et al.*, Fritzell et al.*
Old-age excess mortality 2 (14%) Lundberg et al., Norstrom & Palme
Child mortality 2 (14%) Engster & Olofsdotter Stensota, Tanaka
Life expectancy at birth 1 (7%) Kangas
Change in life expectancy at birth 1 (7%) Kangas
AIDS mortality 1 (7%) Borrell et al.*
Hospitalisation 1 (7%) Fritzell et al.*
Psychological distress in GHQ (General Health Questionnaire) 1 (7%) Nordenmark et al.
Low birth weight 1 (7%) Tanaka
(Immunisation) 1 (7%) Tanaka
Health outcome   
Mortality measure   15
Morbidity measure   10
  1. Many articles examined multiple outcomes and hence the number of studies using the different health outcomes (25) is greater than the number of studies (n = 14).
  2. Mortality measures include: infant mortality, life expectancy at birth, mortality rate, old-age excess mortality, child mortality, AIDS mortality, and change in life expectancy at birth.
  3. Morbidity measures include: self-rated health, limiting longstanding illness/morbidity/disability, hospitalisation, psychological distress in GHQ, low birth weight.
  4. * = Studies with an inequalities perspective.