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Table 3 Body mass index, % body fat and clinical assessments at baseline, 3 months and 12 months

From: Foods, nutrients or whole diets: effects of targeting fish and LCn3PUFA consumption in a 12mo weight loss trial

Variable Control Fish Fish + S Difference between groups
n Value n Value n Value Effect pvalue*
Body mass index (kg/m 2 )  
Baseline 39 30.9 ± 3.5 39 31.4 ± 3.6 40 31.6 ± 3.4 Time < 0.001
3 months 29 29.3 ± 3.4 30 29.5 ± 3.6 28 29.6 ± 3.1 Group 0.376
12 months 18 28.0 ± 3.6 25 28.2 ± 3.4 20 29.8 ± 3.5 Interaction 0.370
Body fat (%) †#  
Baseline 34 36.7 ± 7.3 36 38.0 ± 7.5 36 36.0 ± 8.7 Time < 0.001
3 months 21 33.4 ± 7.7 25 35.5 ± 7.6 20 33.0 ± 10.3 Group 0.595
12 months 14 34.4 ± 7.6 16 37.4 ± 8.1 16 34.0 ± 10.2 Interaction 0.369
Fasting glucose level (mmol/L)  
Baseline 37 5.0 ± 0.5 39 5.1 ± 0.5 39 5.0 ± 0.6 Time 0.009
3 months 27 4.9 ± 0.5 30 5.0 ± 0.6 28 4.7 ± 0.6 Group 0.585
12 months 17 5.1 ± 0.4 24 4.9 ± 0.7 21 4.8 ± 0.4 Interaction 0.350
Fasting insulin level (mU/L)  
Baseline 37 9.1 (7.7 – 12.9) 39 9.6 (7.4 – 13.8) 39 12.0 (8.5 – 17.0) Time 0.001
3 months 27 8.7 (7.1 – 11.5) 29 9.1 (7.4 – 12.2) 28 10.4 (7.2 – 13.0) Group 0.360
12 months 18 8.5 (6.3 – 10.5) 24 8.2 (6.2 – 11.1) 21 9.2 (6.5 – 13.1) Interaction 0.086
Fasting total cholesterol (mmol/L)  
Baseline 37 5.3 ± 1.2 39 5.3 ± 0.8 39 5.2 ± 0.9 Time < 0.001
3 months 27 4.8 ± 0.8 30 5.0 ± 0.8 28 5.1 ± 0.9 Group 0.309
12 months 18 4.6 ± 0.7 24 5.2 ± 1.0 21 5.4 ± 0.9 Interaction 0.098
Fasting triglycerides (mmol/L)  
Baseline 37 1.4 (0.9 – 2.0) 39 1.3 (1.0 – 1.8) 39 1.3 (1.0 – 2.1) Time < 0.001
3 months 27 1.3 (0.9 – 1.6) 30 1.3 (1.0 – 1.5) 28 1.1 (0.7 – 1.7) Group 0.661
12 months 18 1.0 (0.7 – 1.5) 24 1.1 (0.9 – 1.4) 21 1.0 (0.6 – 1.5) Interaction 0.122
Fasting HDL cholesterol (mmol/L)  
Baseline 37 1.5 ± 0.4 39 1.5 ± 0.4 39 1.4 ± 0.4 Time < 0.001
3 months 27 1.5 ± 0.3 30 1.4 ± 0.3 28 1.4 ± 0.5 Group 0.566
12 months 18 1.4 ± 0.3 24 1.4 ± 0.4 21 1.5 ± 0.4 Interaction 0.739
Fasting LDL cholesterol (mmol/L)  
Baseline 37 3.1 ± 1.1 39 3.1 ± 0.8 38 3.1 ± 0.8 Time 0.001
3 months 27 2.7 ± 0.8 30 3.0 ± 0.8 28 3.1 ± 0.7 Group 0.242
12 months 18 2.7 ± 0.8 24 3.2 ± 0.9 21 3.4 ± 0.9 Interaction 0.091
Fasting leptin (mg/mL)¶‡  
Baseline 37 21.5 (11.7 – 31.3) 38 19.9 (12.3 – 29.6) 39 18.0 (10.4 – 30.9) Time < 0.001
3 months 27 11.8 (7.2 – 20.5) 30 14.7 (7.2 – 20.8) 28 14.1 (7.0 – 22.6) Group 0.682
12 months 18 10.7 (5.6 – 16.3) 24 14.1 (7.2 – 23.3) 21 16.7 (6.5 – 27.3) Interaction 0.083
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg)  
Baseline 37 126 ± 16 39 123 ± 16 38 124 ± 16 Time 0.002
3 months 27 125 ± 12 30 120 ± 16 26 116 ± 12 Group 0.673
12 months 16 120 ± 11 23 128 ± 17 20 120 ± 13 Interaction 0.118
Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg)  
Baseline 37 74 ± 10 39 72 ± 9 38 72 ± 9 Time 0.079
3 months 27 74 ± 9 30 72 ± 9 26 70 ± 8 Group 0.990
12 months 16 72 ± 7 23 77 ± 10 20 74 ± 9 Interaction 0.112
HOMA-IR  
Baseline 37 1.6 ± 1.1 39 1.5 ± 0.7 39 1.7 ± 0.7 Time < 0.001
3 months 27 1.3 ± 0.7 29 1.5 ± 0.9 28 1.4 ± 0.5 Group 0.326
12 months 17 1.2 ± 0.5 24 1.2 ± 0.5 21 1.3 ± 0.5 Interaction 0.300
Omega-3 index (%) **  
Baseline 36 4.0 ± 1.2 38 3.5 ± 1.1 39 3.6 ± 1.1 Time 0.240
3 months 26 3.6 ± 2.0 30 3.6 ± 1.2 28 4.5 ± 1.7 Group 0.009
12 months 15 3.7 ± 0.9 23 3.4 ± 1.0 21 4.4 ± 1.6 Interaction 0.116
  1. Values are expressed as mean ± SD or median (interquartile range).
  2. HOMA-IR, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance.
  3. *Linear mixed model, significance at p = 0.05.
  4. ¶Leptin adjusted for body fat.
  5. p value based on five time points (0, 3, 6, 9 and 12 months).
  6. #Body fat assessed by DEXA.
  7. ‡Ln transformed.
  8. **Erythrocyte[EPA + DHA]/[total fatty acids] × 100%.