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Table 2 Recent studies on economic impact of chronic pain and conditions with which it is associated

From: The individual and societal burden of chronic pain in Europe: the case for strategic prioritisation and action to improve knowledge and availability of appropriate care

Country (pricing year) Ireland (2008) [30] Sweden (2008) [43] Denmark (2010) [41] United States (2010) [42]
Data source Postal survey National and regional healthcare administrative registries National administrative healthcare registries Medical Expenditure Panel Survey
Pain definition Chronic pain and conditions it Diagnoses related to chronic pain Pain-intensive diagnoses (n = 1,918,823) Pain limiting ability to work; diagnoses of joint pain or arthritis; disability limiting ability to work (n = 20,214)
features (n = 140) (n = 837,896)
Total cost/patient/year €5,665 €6,429 Healthcare costs: DKK34,784–208,830/year (depending on condition), 2010 ND
Type of cost (% of total) Direct healthcare: 52% Direct healthcare: 41% Direct healthcare: 71% Direct healthcare: 47%
Indirect: 48% Indirect: 59% Indirect: 29% Indirect: 53%
National cost estimate/year €5.34 billion €32 billion DKK17.8 billion $560–635 billion
~3% of GDP ~10% of GDP ~4% of GDPa
  1. GDP, gross domestic product; PRIME, Prevalence, Impact and Cost of Chronic Pain; ND, no data.
  2. aNot in original publication. Assumes US GDP in 2010 of US$14.4 trillion [48]).